{ "cells": [ { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": {}, "source": [ "# Tutorial: Sub-Riemannian geometry on the Heisenberg group" ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": {}, "source": [ "Lead author: Morten Pedersen." ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 1, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "name": "stderr", "output_type": "stream", "text": [ "INFO: Using autograd backend\n" ] } ], "source": [ "import geomstats.backend as gs\n", "import geomstats\n", "\n", "from geomstats.geometry.sub_riemannian_metric import SubRiemannianMetric\n", "from geomstats.geometry.heisenberg import HeisenbergVectors\n", "\n", "%matplotlib notebook" ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": {}, "source": [ "We import modules for plotting," ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 2, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [], "source": [ "import matplotlib.pyplot as plt\n", "import matplotlib\n", "from mpl_toolkits.mplot3d import Axes3D" ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": {}, "source": [ "## The Heisenberg group" ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": {}, "source": [ "We instantiate the 3D heisenberg group, " ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 3, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [], "source": [ "heis = HeisenbergVectors(equip=False)" ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": {}, "source": [ "'heis' is an object representing a manifold, without any sub-Riemannian structure associated to it. \n", "\n", "In geomstats, a sub-Riemannian structure is constructed via the SubRiemannianMetric-class. \n", "We now instantiate a SubRiemannianMetric corresponding to the heisenberg group. \n", "\n", "In geomstats, a sub-Riemannian metric can be instantiated by supplying either \n", "\n", "- a function which at an input point outputs the matrix representing the cometric, or\n", "- a function which at an input point outputs a matrix whose columns are frame-vectors spanning the distribution at that point. This frame is then implicitly assumed to be orthonormal, so it determines both the distribution and the metric on the tangent bundle." ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": {}, "source": [ "## Defining the Heisenberg sub-Riemannian structure via a frame-field" ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": {}, "source": [ "We will construct the sub-Riemannian Heisenberg group by supplying a frame-function. Mathematically, we represent the distribution $\\Delta$ in a standard way; at the point $p \\in heis$ the distribution is $$\\Delta_p = \\text{span}(F_X(p), F_Y(p)),$$ where $F_X = L^{\\star}_p(X)$, $F_Y = L^{\\star}_p(Y)$ and $X = (1,0,0)$, $Y=(0,1,0)$. So e.g. $F_X$ is the tangent left translation to point $p$ of the standard basis vector X in the Lie-algebra. In geomstats, this can be done concisely as follows," ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 4, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [], "source": [ "def heis_frame(point):\n", " translations = heis.jacobian_translation(point)\n", " return translations[..., 0:2]" ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": {}, "source": [ "Given the frame, we now instantiate the sub-Riemannian metric for the Heisenberg group" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 5, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [], "source": [ "heis_sr = SubRiemannianMetric(heis, frame=heis_frame)" ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": {}, "source": [ "We can illustrate the distribution by plotting the frame-vectors along a line:" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 6, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "application/javascript": [ "/* Put everything inside the global mpl namespace */\n", "/* global mpl */\n", "window.mpl = {};\n", "\n", "mpl.get_websocket_type = function () {\n", " if (typeof WebSocket !== 'undefined') {\n", " return WebSocket;\n", " } else if (typeof MozWebSocket !== 'undefined') {\n", " return MozWebSocket;\n", " } else {\n", " alert(\n", " 'Your browser does not have WebSocket support. 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But how to set the MIME type? It doesn't seem\n", " * to be part of the websocket stream */\n", " img.type = 'image/png';\n", " }\n", "\n", " /* Free the memory for the previous frames */\n", " if (fig.imageObj.src) {\n", " (window.URL || window.webkitURL).revokeObjectURL(\n", " fig.imageObj.src\n", " );\n", " }\n", "\n", " fig.imageObj.src = (window.URL || window.webkitURL).createObjectURL(\n", " img\n", " );\n", " fig.updated_canvas_event();\n", " fig.waiting = false;\n", " return;\n", " } else if (\n", " typeof evt.data === 'string' &&\n", " evt.data.slice(0, 21) === 'data:image/png;base64'\n", " ) {\n", " fig.imageObj.src = evt.data;\n", " fig.updated_canvas_event();\n", " fig.waiting = false;\n", " return;\n", " }\n", "\n", " var msg = JSON.parse(evt.data);\n", " var msg_type = msg['type'];\n", "\n", " // Call the \"handle_{type}\" callback, which takes\n", " // the figure and JSON message as its only arguments.\n", " try {\n", " var callback = fig['handle_' + msg_type];\n", " } catch (e) {\n", " console.log(\n", " \"No handler for the '\" + msg_type + \"' message type: \",\n", " msg\n", " );\n", " return;\n", " }\n", "\n", " if (callback) {\n", " try {\n", " // console.log(\"Handling '\" + msg_type + \"' message: \", msg);\n", " callback(fig, msg);\n", " } catch (e) {\n", " console.log(\n", " \"Exception inside the 'handler_\" + msg_type + \"' callback:\",\n", " e,\n", " e.stack,\n", " msg\n", " );\n", " }\n", " }\n", " };\n", "};\n", "\n", "function getModifiers(event) {\n", " var mods = [];\n", " if (event.ctrlKey) {\n", " mods.push('ctrl');\n", " }\n", " if (event.altKey) {\n", " mods.push('alt');\n", " }\n", " if (event.shiftKey) {\n", " mods.push('shift');\n", " }\n", " if (event.metaKey) {\n", " mods.push('meta');\n", " }\n", " return mods;\n", "}\n", "\n", "/*\n", " * return a copy of an object with only non-object keys\n", " * we need this to avoid circular references\n", " * https://stackoverflow.com/a/24161582/3208463\n", " */\n", "function simpleKeys(original) {\n", " return Object.keys(original).reduce(function (obj, key) {\n", " if (typeof original[key] !== 'object') {\n", " obj[key] = original[key];\n", " }\n", " return obj;\n", " }, {});\n", "}\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.mouse_event = function (event, name) {\n", " if (name === 'button_press') {\n", " this.canvas.focus();\n", " this.canvas_div.focus();\n", " }\n", "\n", " // from https://stackoverflow.com/q/1114465\n", " var boundingRect = this.canvas.getBoundingClientRect();\n", " var x = (event.clientX - boundingRect.left) * this.ratio;\n", " var y = (event.clientY - boundingRect.top) * this.ratio;\n", "\n", " this.send_message(name, {\n", " x: x,\n", " y: y,\n", " button: event.button,\n", " step: event.step,\n", " modifiers: getModifiers(event),\n", " guiEvent: simpleKeys(event),\n", " });\n", "\n", " return false;\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._key_event_extra = function (_event, _name) {\n", " // Handle any extra behaviour associated with a key event\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.key_event = function (event, name) {\n", " // Prevent repeat events\n", " if (name === 'key_press') {\n", " if (event.key === this._key) {\n", " return;\n", " } else {\n", " this._key = event.key;\n", " }\n", " }\n", " if (name === 'key_release') {\n", " this._key = null;\n", " }\n", "\n", " var value = '';\n", " if (event.ctrlKey && event.key !== 'Control') {\n", " value += 'ctrl+';\n", " }\n", " else if (event.altKey && event.key !== 'Alt') {\n", " value += 'alt+';\n", " }\n", " else if (event.shiftKey && event.key !== 'Shift') {\n", " value += 'shift+';\n", " }\n", "\n", " value += 'k' + event.key;\n", "\n", " this._key_event_extra(event, name);\n", "\n", " this.send_message(name, { key: value, guiEvent: simpleKeys(event) });\n", " return false;\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.toolbar_button_onclick = function (name) {\n", " if (name === 'download') {\n", " this.handle_save(this, null);\n", " } else {\n", " this.send_message('toolbar_button', { name: name });\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.toolbar_button_onmouseover = function (tooltip) {\n", " this.message.textContent = tooltip;\n", "};\n", "\n", "///////////////// REMAINING CONTENT GENERATED BY embed_js.py /////////////////\n", "// prettier-ignore\n", "var _JSXTOOLS_RESIZE_OBSERVER=function(A){var t,i=new WeakMap,n=new WeakMap,a=new WeakMap,r=new WeakMap,o=new Set;function s(e){if(!(this instanceof s))throw new TypeError(\"Constructor requires 'new' operator\");i.set(this,e)}function h(){throw new TypeError(\"Function is not a constructor\")}function c(e,t,i,n){e=0 in arguments?Number(arguments[0]):0,t=1 in arguments?Number(arguments[1]):0,i=2 in arguments?Number(arguments[2]):0,n=3 in arguments?Number(arguments[3]):0,this.right=(this.x=this.left=e)+(this.width=i),this.bottom=(this.y=this.top=t)+(this.height=n),Object.freeze(this)}function d(){t=requestAnimationFrame(d);var s=new WeakMap,p=new Set;o.forEach((function(t){r.get(t).forEach((function(i){var r=t instanceof window.SVGElement,o=a.get(t),d=r?0:parseFloat(o.paddingTop),f=r?0:parseFloat(o.paddingRight),l=r?0:parseFloat(o.paddingBottom),u=r?0:parseFloat(o.paddingLeft),g=r?0:parseFloat(o.borderTopWidth),m=r?0:parseFloat(o.borderRightWidth),w=r?0:parseFloat(o.borderBottomWidth),b=u+f,F=d+l,v=(r?0:parseFloat(o.borderLeftWidth))+m,W=g+w,y=r?0:t.offsetHeight-W-t.clientHeight,E=r?0:t.offsetWidth-v-t.clientWidth,R=b+v,z=F+W,M=r?t.width:parseFloat(o.width)-R-E,O=r?t.height:parseFloat(o.height)-z-y;if(n.has(t)){var k=n.get(t);if(k[0]===M&&k[1]===O)return}n.set(t,[M,O]);var S=Object.create(h.prototype);S.target=t,S.contentRect=new c(u,d,M,O),s.has(i)||(s.set(i,[]),p.add(i)),s.get(i).push(S)}))})),p.forEach((function(e){i.get(e).call(e,s.get(e),e)}))}return s.prototype.observe=function(i){if(i instanceof window.Element){r.has(i)||(r.set(i,new Set),o.add(i),a.set(i,window.getComputedStyle(i)));var n=r.get(i);n.has(this)||n.add(this),cancelAnimationFrame(t),t=requestAnimationFrame(d)}},s.prototype.unobserve=function(i){if(i instanceof window.Element&&r.has(i)){var n=r.get(i);n.has(this)&&(n.delete(this),n.size||(r.delete(i),o.delete(i))),n.size||r.delete(i),o.size||cancelAnimationFrame(t)}},A.DOMRectReadOnly=c,A.ResizeObserver=s,A.ResizeObserverEntry=h,A}; // eslint-disable-line\n", "mpl.toolbar_items = [[\"Home\", \"Reset original view\", \"fa fa-home\", \"home\"], [\"Back\", \"Back to previous view\", \"fa fa-arrow-left\", \"back\"], [\"Forward\", \"Forward to next view\", \"fa fa-arrow-right\", \"forward\"], [\"\", \"\", \"\", \"\"], [\"Pan\", \"Left button pans, Right button zooms\\nx/y fixes axis, CTRL fixes aspect\", \"fa fa-arrows\", \"pan\"], [\"Zoom\", \"Zoom to rectangle\\nx/y fixes axis\", \"fa fa-square-o\", \"zoom\"], [\"\", \"\", \"\", \"\"], [\"Download\", \"Download plot\", \"fa fa-floppy-o\", \"download\"]];\n", "\n", "mpl.extensions = [\"eps\", \"jpeg\", \"pgf\", \"pdf\", \"png\", \"ps\", \"raw\", \"svg\", \"tif\", \"webp\"];\n", "\n", "mpl.default_extension = \"png\";/* global mpl */\n", "\n", "var comm_websocket_adapter = function (comm) {\n", " // Create a \"websocket\"-like object which calls the given IPython comm\n", " // object with the appropriate methods. Currently this is a non binary\n", " // socket, so there is still some room for performance tuning.\n", " var ws = {};\n", "\n", " ws.binaryType = comm.kernel.ws.binaryType;\n", " ws.readyState = comm.kernel.ws.readyState;\n", " function updateReadyState(_event) {\n", " if (comm.kernel.ws) {\n", " ws.readyState = comm.kernel.ws.readyState;\n", " } else {\n", " ws.readyState = 3; // Closed state.\n", " }\n", " }\n", " comm.kernel.ws.addEventListener('open', updateReadyState);\n", " comm.kernel.ws.addEventListener('close', updateReadyState);\n", " comm.kernel.ws.addEventListener('error', updateReadyState);\n", "\n", " ws.close = function () {\n", " comm.close();\n", " };\n", " ws.send = function (m) {\n", " //console.log('sending', m);\n", " comm.send(m);\n", " };\n", " // Register the callback with on_msg.\n", " comm.on_msg(function (msg) {\n", " //console.log('receiving', msg['content']['data'], msg);\n", " var data = msg['content']['data'];\n", " if (data['blob'] !== undefined) {\n", " data = {\n", " data: new Blob(msg['buffers'], { type: data['blob'] }),\n", " };\n", " }\n", " // Pass the mpl event to the overridden (by mpl) onmessage function.\n", " ws.onmessage(data);\n", " });\n", " return ws;\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.mpl_figure_comm = function (comm, msg) {\n", " // This is the function which gets called when the mpl process\n", " // starts-up an IPython Comm through the \"matplotlib\" channel.\n", "\n", " var id = msg.content.data.id;\n", " // Get hold of the div created by the display call when the Comm\n", " // socket was opened in Python.\n", " var element = document.getElementById(id);\n", " var ws_proxy = comm_websocket_adapter(comm);\n", "\n", " function ondownload(figure, _format) {\n", " window.open(figure.canvas.toDataURL());\n", " }\n", "\n", " var fig = new mpl.figure(id, ws_proxy, ondownload, element);\n", "\n", " // Call onopen now - mpl needs it, as it is assuming we've passed it a real\n", " // web socket which is closed, not our websocket->open comm proxy.\n", " ws_proxy.onopen();\n", "\n", " fig.parent_element = element;\n", " fig.cell_info = mpl.find_output_cell(\"
\");\n", " if (!fig.cell_info) {\n", " console.error('Failed to find cell for figure', id, fig);\n", " return;\n", " }\n", " fig.cell_info[0].output_area.element.on(\n", " 'cleared',\n", " { fig: fig },\n", " fig._remove_fig_handler\n", " );\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_close = function (fig, msg) {\n", " var width = fig.canvas.width / fig.ratio;\n", " fig.cell_info[0].output_area.element.off(\n", " 'cleared',\n", " fig._remove_fig_handler\n", " );\n", " fig.resizeObserverInstance.unobserve(fig.canvas_div);\n", "\n", " // Update the output cell to use the data from the current canvas.\n", " fig.push_to_output();\n", " var dataURL = fig.canvas.toDataURL();\n", " // Re-enable the keyboard manager in IPython - without this line, in FF,\n", " // the notebook keyboard shortcuts fail.\n", " IPython.keyboard_manager.enable();\n", " fig.parent_element.innerHTML =\n", " '';\n", " fig.close_ws(fig, msg);\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.close_ws = function (fig, msg) {\n", " fig.send_message('closing', msg);\n", " // fig.ws.close()\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.push_to_output = function (_remove_interactive) {\n", " // Turn the data on the canvas into data in the output cell.\n", " var width = this.canvas.width / this.ratio;\n", " var dataURL = this.canvas.toDataURL();\n", " this.cell_info[1]['text/html'] =\n", " '';\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.updated_canvas_event = function () {\n", " // Tell IPython that the notebook contents must change.\n", " IPython.notebook.set_dirty(true);\n", " this.send_message('ack', {});\n", " var fig = this;\n", " // Wait a second, then push the new image to the DOM so\n", " // that it is saved nicely (might be nice to debounce this).\n", " setTimeout(function () {\n", " fig.push_to_output();\n", " }, 1000);\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._init_toolbar = function () {\n", " var fig = this;\n", "\n", " var toolbar = document.createElement('div');\n", " toolbar.classList = 'btn-toolbar';\n", " this.root.appendChild(toolbar);\n", "\n", " function on_click_closure(name) {\n", " return function (_event) {\n", " return fig.toolbar_button_onclick(name);\n", " };\n", " }\n", "\n", " function on_mouseover_closure(tooltip) {\n", " return function (event) {\n", " if (!event.currentTarget.disabled) {\n", " return fig.toolbar_button_onmouseover(tooltip);\n", " }\n", " };\n", " }\n", "\n", " fig.buttons = {};\n", " var buttonGroup = document.createElement('div');\n", " buttonGroup.classList = 'btn-group';\n", " var button;\n", " for (var toolbar_ind in mpl.toolbar_items) {\n", " var name = mpl.toolbar_items[toolbar_ind][0];\n", " var tooltip = mpl.toolbar_items[toolbar_ind][1];\n", " var image = mpl.toolbar_items[toolbar_ind][2];\n", " var method_name = mpl.toolbar_items[toolbar_ind][3];\n", "\n", " if (!name) {\n", " /* Instead of a spacer, we start a new button group. */\n", " if (buttonGroup.hasChildNodes()) {\n", " toolbar.appendChild(buttonGroup);\n", " }\n", " buttonGroup = document.createElement('div');\n", " buttonGroup.classList = 'btn-group';\n", " continue;\n", " }\n", "\n", " button = fig.buttons[name] = document.createElement('button');\n", " button.classList = 'btn btn-default';\n", " button.href = '#';\n", " button.title = name;\n", " button.innerHTML = '';\n", " button.addEventListener('click', on_click_closure(method_name));\n", " button.addEventListener('mouseover', on_mouseover_closure(tooltip));\n", " buttonGroup.appendChild(button);\n", " }\n", "\n", " if (buttonGroup.hasChildNodes()) {\n", " toolbar.appendChild(buttonGroup);\n", " }\n", "\n", " // Add the status bar.\n", " var status_bar = document.createElement('span');\n", " status_bar.classList = 'mpl-message pull-right';\n", " toolbar.appendChild(status_bar);\n", " this.message = status_bar;\n", "\n", " // Add the close button to the window.\n", " var buttongrp = document.createElement('div');\n", " buttongrp.classList = 'btn-group inline pull-right';\n", " button = document.createElement('button');\n", " button.classList = 'btn btn-mini btn-primary';\n", " button.href = '#';\n", " button.title = 'Stop Interaction';\n", " button.innerHTML = '';\n", " button.addEventListener('click', function (_evt) {\n", " fig.handle_close(fig, {});\n", " });\n", " button.addEventListener(\n", " 'mouseover',\n", " on_mouseover_closure('Stop Interaction')\n", " );\n", " buttongrp.appendChild(button);\n", " var titlebar = this.root.querySelector('.ui-dialog-titlebar');\n", " titlebar.insertBefore(buttongrp, titlebar.firstChild);\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._remove_fig_handler = function (event) {\n", " var fig = event.data.fig;\n", " if (event.target !== this) {\n", " // Ignore bubbled events from children.\n", " return;\n", " }\n", " fig.close_ws(fig, {});\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._root_extra_style = function (el) {\n", " el.style.boxSizing = 'content-box'; // override notebook setting of border-box.\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._canvas_extra_style = function (el) {\n", " // this is important to make the div 'focusable\n", " el.setAttribute('tabindex', 0);\n", " // reach out to IPython and tell the keyboard manager to turn it's self\n", " // off when our div gets focus\n", "\n", " // location in version 3\n", " if (IPython.notebook.keyboard_manager) {\n", " IPython.notebook.keyboard_manager.register_events(el);\n", " } else {\n", " // location in version 2\n", " IPython.keyboard_manager.register_events(el);\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._key_event_extra = function (event, _name) {\n", " // Check for shift+enter\n", " if (event.shiftKey && event.which === 13) {\n", " this.canvas_div.blur();\n", " // select the cell after this one\n", " var index = IPython.notebook.find_cell_index(this.cell_info[0]);\n", " IPython.notebook.select(index + 1);\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_save = function (fig, _msg) {\n", " fig.ondownload(fig, null);\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.find_output_cell = function (html_output) {\n", " // Return the cell and output element which can be found *uniquely* in the notebook.\n", " // Note - this is a bit hacky, but it is done because the \"notebook_saving.Notebook\"\n", " // IPython event is triggered only after the cells have been serialised, which for\n", " // our purposes (turning an active figure into a static one), is too late.\n", " var cells = IPython.notebook.get_cells();\n", " var ncells = cells.length;\n", " for (var i = 0; i < ncells; i++) {\n", " var cell = cells[i];\n", " if (cell.cell_type === 'code') {\n", " for (var j = 0; j < cell.output_area.outputs.length; j++) {\n", " var data = cell.output_area.outputs[j];\n", " if (data.data) {\n", " // IPython >= 3 moved mimebundle to data attribute of output\n", " data = data.data;\n", " }\n", " if (data['text/html'] === html_output) {\n", " return [cell, data, j];\n", " }\n", " }\n", " }\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "// Register the function which deals with the matplotlib target/channel.\n", "// The kernel may be null if the page has been refreshed.\n", "if (IPython.notebook.kernel !== null) {\n", " IPython.notebook.kernel.comm_manager.register_target(\n", " 'matplotlib',\n", " mpl.mpl_figure_comm\n", " );\n", "}\n" ], "text/plain": [ "" ] }, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "display_data" }, { "data": { "text/html": [ "" ], "text/plain": [ "" ] }, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "display_data" } ], "source": [ "line = gs.array([k*gs.array([1., 1., 1.]) for k in gs.linspace(0,10,10)])\n", "line = gs.array([k*gs.array([1., 0., 0.]) for k in gs.linspace(0,10,10)])\n", "\n", "quiver_length = 0.1\n", "\n", "\n", "fig1 = plt.figure()\n", "ax = plt.axes(projection='3d')\n", "\n", "for i in range(line.shape[0]):\n", " point = line[i,:]\n", " frame_at_point = heis_sr.frame(point)\n", "\n", " frame1 = frame_at_point[:, 1]\n", " frame2 = frame_at_point[:, 0]\n", "\n", " ax.quiver(point[0], point[1], point[2],\n", " frame1[0], frame1[1], frame1[2],\n", " length = quiver_length, normalize = True, color = 'orange',alpha=0.8,\n", " linestyle = '-')\n", " ax.quiver(point[0], point[1], point[2],\n", " frame2[0], frame2[1], frame2[2],\n", " length = quiver_length, normalize = True, color = 'blue',alpha=0.8,\n", " linestyle = '-')" ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": {}, "source": [ "Everything is now set up to generate sub-Riemannian geodesics. A sub-Riemannian geodesic on a manifold $M$ is determined by an initial point $p \\in M$ and an initial cotangent $\\lambda \\in T_p M$." ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 7, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [], "source": [ "base_point = gs.array([0., 0., 0.])\n", "initial_cotangent = gs.array([1., 1., 1.])\n", "\n", "times = gs.linspace(0., 10., 50)\n", "\n", "path = heis_sr.geodesic(initial_point=base_point,\n", " initial_cotangent_vec=initial_cotangent,\n", " n_steps=1000)\n", "\n", "path_1_1 = path(times)\n" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 8, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "application/javascript": [ "/* Put everything inside the global mpl namespace */\n", "/* global mpl */\n", "window.mpl = {};\n", "\n", "mpl.get_websocket_type = function () {\n", " if (typeof WebSocket !== 'undefined') {\n", " return WebSocket;\n", " } else if (typeof MozWebSocket !== 'undefined') {\n", " return MozWebSocket;\n", " } else {\n", " alert(\n", " 'Your browser does not have WebSocket support. ' +\n", " 'Please try Chrome, Safari or Firefox ≥ 6. ' +\n", " 'Firefox 4 and 5 are also supported but you ' +\n", " 'have to enable WebSockets in about:config.'\n", " );\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure = function (figure_id, websocket, ondownload, parent_element) {\n", " this.id = figure_id;\n", "\n", " this.ws = websocket;\n", "\n", " this.supports_binary = this.ws.binaryType !== undefined;\n", "\n", " if (!this.supports_binary) {\n", " var warnings = document.getElementById('mpl-warnings');\n", " if (warnings) {\n", " warnings.style.display = 'block';\n", " warnings.textContent =\n", " 'This browser does not support binary websocket messages. ' +\n", " 'Performance may be slow.';\n", " }\n", " }\n", "\n", " this.imageObj = new Image();\n", "\n", " this.context = undefined;\n", " this.message = undefined;\n", " this.canvas = undefined;\n", " this.rubberband_canvas = undefined;\n", " this.rubberband_context = undefined;\n", " this.format_dropdown = undefined;\n", "\n", " this.image_mode = 'full';\n", "\n", " this.root = document.createElement('div');\n", " this.root.setAttribute('style', 'display: inline-block');\n", " this._root_extra_style(this.root);\n", "\n", " parent_element.appendChild(this.root);\n", "\n", " this._init_header(this);\n", " this._init_canvas(this);\n", " this._init_toolbar(this);\n", "\n", " var fig = this;\n", "\n", " this.waiting = false;\n", "\n", " this.ws.onopen = function () {\n", " fig.send_message('supports_binary', { value: fig.supports_binary });\n", " fig.send_message('send_image_mode', {});\n", " if (fig.ratio !== 1) {\n", " fig.send_message('set_device_pixel_ratio', {\n", " device_pixel_ratio: fig.ratio,\n", " });\n", " }\n", " fig.send_message('refresh', {});\n", " };\n", "\n", " this.imageObj.onload = function () {\n", " if (fig.image_mode === 'full') {\n", " // Full images could contain transparency (where diff images\n", " // almost always do), so we need to clear the canvas so that\n", " // there is no ghosting.\n", " fig.context.clearRect(0, 0, fig.canvas.width, fig.canvas.height);\n", " }\n", " fig.context.drawImage(fig.imageObj, 0, 0);\n", " };\n", "\n", " this.imageObj.onunload = function () {\n", " fig.ws.close();\n", " };\n", "\n", " this.ws.onmessage = this._make_on_message_function(this);\n", "\n", " this.ondownload = ondownload;\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._init_header = function () {\n", " var titlebar = document.createElement('div');\n", " titlebar.classList =\n", " 'ui-dialog-titlebar ui-widget-header ui-corner-all ui-helper-clearfix';\n", " var titletext = document.createElement('div');\n", " titletext.classList = 'ui-dialog-title';\n", " titletext.setAttribute(\n", " 'style',\n", " 'width: 100%; text-align: center; padding: 3px;'\n", " );\n", " titlebar.appendChild(titletext);\n", " this.root.appendChild(titlebar);\n", " this.header = titletext;\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._canvas_extra_style = function (_canvas_div) {};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._root_extra_style = function (_canvas_div) {};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._init_canvas = function () {\n", " var fig = this;\n", "\n", " var canvas_div = (this.canvas_div = document.createElement('div'));\n", " canvas_div.setAttribute('tabindex', '0');\n", " canvas_div.setAttribute(\n", " 'style',\n", " 'border: 1px solid #ddd;' +\n", " 'box-sizing: content-box;' +\n", " 'clear: both;' +\n", " 'min-height: 1px;' +\n", " 'min-width: 1px;' +\n", " 'outline: 0;' +\n", " 'overflow: hidden;' +\n", " 'position: relative;' +\n", " 'resize: both;' +\n", " 'z-index: 2;'\n", " );\n", "\n", " function on_keyboard_event_closure(name) {\n", " return function (event) {\n", " return fig.key_event(event, name);\n", " };\n", " }\n", "\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener(\n", " 'keydown',\n", " on_keyboard_event_closure('key_press')\n", " );\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener(\n", " 'keyup',\n", " on_keyboard_event_closure('key_release')\n", " );\n", "\n", " this._canvas_extra_style(canvas_div);\n", " this.root.appendChild(canvas_div);\n", "\n", " var canvas = (this.canvas = document.createElement('canvas'));\n", " canvas.classList.add('mpl-canvas');\n", " canvas.setAttribute(\n", " 'style',\n", " 'box-sizing: content-box;' +\n", " 'pointer-events: none;' +\n", " 'position: relative;' +\n", " 'z-index: 0;'\n", " );\n", "\n", " this.context = canvas.getContext('2d');\n", "\n", " var backingStore =\n", " this.context.backingStorePixelRatio ||\n", " this.context.webkitBackingStorePixelRatio ||\n", " this.context.mozBackingStorePixelRatio ||\n", " this.context.msBackingStorePixelRatio ||\n", " this.context.oBackingStorePixelRatio ||\n", " this.context.backingStorePixelRatio ||\n", " 1;\n", "\n", " this.ratio = (window.devicePixelRatio || 1) / backingStore;\n", "\n", " var rubberband_canvas = (this.rubberband_canvas = document.createElement(\n", " 'canvas'\n", " ));\n", " rubberband_canvas.setAttribute(\n", " 'style',\n", " 'box-sizing: content-box;' +\n", " 'left: 0;' +\n", " 'pointer-events: none;' +\n", " 'position: absolute;' +\n", " 'top: 0;' +\n", " 'z-index: 1;'\n", " );\n", "\n", " // Apply a ponyfill if ResizeObserver is not implemented by browser.\n", " if (this.ResizeObserver === undefined) {\n", " if (window.ResizeObserver !== undefined) {\n", " this.ResizeObserver = window.ResizeObserver;\n", " } else {\n", " var obs = _JSXTOOLS_RESIZE_OBSERVER({});\n", " this.ResizeObserver = obs.ResizeObserver;\n", " }\n", " }\n", "\n", " this.resizeObserverInstance = new this.ResizeObserver(function (entries) {\n", " var nentries = entries.length;\n", " for (var i = 0; i < nentries; i++) {\n", " var entry = entries[i];\n", " var width, height;\n", " if (entry.contentBoxSize) {\n", " if (entry.contentBoxSize instanceof Array) {\n", " // Chrome 84 implements new version of spec.\n", " width = entry.contentBoxSize[0].inlineSize;\n", " height = entry.contentBoxSize[0].blockSize;\n", " } else {\n", " // Firefox implements old version of spec.\n", " width = entry.contentBoxSize.inlineSize;\n", " height = entry.contentBoxSize.blockSize;\n", " }\n", " } else {\n", " // Chrome <84 implements even older version of spec.\n", " width = entry.contentRect.width;\n", " height = entry.contentRect.height;\n", " }\n", "\n", " // Keep the size of the canvas and rubber band canvas in sync with\n", " // the canvas container.\n", " if (entry.devicePixelContentBoxSize) {\n", " // Chrome 84 implements new version of spec.\n", " canvas.setAttribute(\n", " 'width',\n", " entry.devicePixelContentBoxSize[0].inlineSize\n", " );\n", " canvas.setAttribute(\n", " 'height',\n", " entry.devicePixelContentBoxSize[0].blockSize\n", " );\n", " } else {\n", " canvas.setAttribute('width', width * fig.ratio);\n", " canvas.setAttribute('height', height * fig.ratio);\n", " }\n", " /* This rescales the canvas back to display pixels, so that it\n", " * appears correct on HiDPI screens. */\n", " canvas.style.width = width + 'px';\n", " canvas.style.height = height + 'px';\n", "\n", " rubberband_canvas.setAttribute('width', width);\n", " rubberband_canvas.setAttribute('height', height);\n", "\n", " // And update the size in Python. We ignore the initial 0/0 size\n", " // that occurs as the element is placed into the DOM, which should\n", " // otherwise not happen due to the minimum size styling.\n", " if (fig.ws.readyState == 1 && width != 0 && height != 0) {\n", " fig.request_resize(width, height);\n", " }\n", " }\n", " });\n", " this.resizeObserverInstance.observe(canvas_div);\n", "\n", " function on_mouse_event_closure(name) {\n", " /* User Agent sniffing is bad, but WebKit is busted:\n", " * https://bugs.webkit.org/show_bug.cgi?id=144526\n", " * https://bugs.webkit.org/show_bug.cgi?id=181818\n", " * The worst that happens here is that they get an extra browser\n", " * selection when dragging, if this check fails to catch them.\n", " */\n", " var UA = navigator.userAgent;\n", " var isWebKit = /AppleWebKit/.test(UA) && !/Chrome/.test(UA);\n", " if(isWebKit) {\n", " return function (event) {\n", " /* This prevents the web browser from automatically changing to\n", " * the text insertion cursor when the button is pressed. We\n", " * want to control all of the cursor setting manually through\n", " * the 'cursor' event from matplotlib */\n", " event.preventDefault()\n", " return fig.mouse_event(event, name);\n", " };\n", " } else {\n", " return function (event) {\n", " return fig.mouse_event(event, name);\n", " };\n", " }\n", " }\n", "\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener(\n", " 'mousedown',\n", " on_mouse_event_closure('button_press')\n", " );\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener(\n", " 'mouseup',\n", " on_mouse_event_closure('button_release')\n", " );\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener(\n", " 'dblclick',\n", " on_mouse_event_closure('dblclick')\n", " );\n", " // Throttle sequential mouse events to 1 every 20ms.\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener(\n", " 'mousemove',\n", " on_mouse_event_closure('motion_notify')\n", " );\n", "\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener(\n", " 'mouseenter',\n", " on_mouse_event_closure('figure_enter')\n", " );\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener(\n", " 'mouseleave',\n", " on_mouse_event_closure('figure_leave')\n", " );\n", "\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener('wheel', function (event) {\n", " if (event.deltaY < 0) {\n", " event.step = 1;\n", " } else {\n", " event.step = -1;\n", " }\n", " on_mouse_event_closure('scroll')(event);\n", " });\n", "\n", " canvas_div.appendChild(canvas);\n", " canvas_div.appendChild(rubberband_canvas);\n", "\n", " this.rubberband_context = rubberband_canvas.getContext('2d');\n", " this.rubberband_context.strokeStyle = '#000000';\n", "\n", " this._resize_canvas = function (width, height, forward) {\n", " if (forward) {\n", " canvas_div.style.width = width + 'px';\n", " canvas_div.style.height = height + 'px';\n", " }\n", " };\n", "\n", " // Disable right mouse context menu.\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener('contextmenu', function (_e) {\n", " event.preventDefault();\n", " return false;\n", " });\n", "\n", " function set_focus() {\n", " canvas.focus();\n", " canvas_div.focus();\n", " }\n", "\n", " window.setTimeout(set_focus, 100);\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._init_toolbar = function () {\n", " var fig = this;\n", "\n", " var toolbar = document.createElement('div');\n", " toolbar.classList = 'mpl-toolbar';\n", " this.root.appendChild(toolbar);\n", "\n", " function on_click_closure(name) {\n", " return function (_event) {\n", " return fig.toolbar_button_onclick(name);\n", " };\n", " }\n", "\n", " function on_mouseover_closure(tooltip) {\n", " return function (event) {\n", " if (!event.currentTarget.disabled) {\n", " return fig.toolbar_button_onmouseover(tooltip);\n", " }\n", " };\n", " }\n", "\n", " fig.buttons = {};\n", " var buttonGroup = document.createElement('div');\n", " buttonGroup.classList = 'mpl-button-group';\n", " for (var toolbar_ind in mpl.toolbar_items) {\n", " var name = mpl.toolbar_items[toolbar_ind][0];\n", " var tooltip = mpl.toolbar_items[toolbar_ind][1];\n", " var image = mpl.toolbar_items[toolbar_ind][2];\n", " var method_name = mpl.toolbar_items[toolbar_ind][3];\n", "\n", " if (!name) {\n", " /* Instead of a spacer, we start a new button group. */\n", " if (buttonGroup.hasChildNodes()) {\n", " toolbar.appendChild(buttonGroup);\n", " }\n", " buttonGroup = document.createElement('div');\n", " buttonGroup.classList = 'mpl-button-group';\n", " continue;\n", " }\n", "\n", " var button = (fig.buttons[name] = document.createElement('button'));\n", " button.classList = 'mpl-widget';\n", " button.setAttribute('role', 'button');\n", " button.setAttribute('aria-disabled', 'false');\n", " button.addEventListener('click', on_click_closure(method_name));\n", " button.addEventListener('mouseover', on_mouseover_closure(tooltip));\n", "\n", " var icon_img = document.createElement('img');\n", " icon_img.src = '_images/' + image + '.png';\n", " icon_img.srcset = '_images/' + image + '_large.png 2x';\n", " icon_img.alt = tooltip;\n", " button.appendChild(icon_img);\n", "\n", " buttonGroup.appendChild(button);\n", " }\n", "\n", " if (buttonGroup.hasChildNodes()) {\n", " toolbar.appendChild(buttonGroup);\n", " }\n", "\n", " var fmt_picker = document.createElement('select');\n", " fmt_picker.classList = 'mpl-widget';\n", " toolbar.appendChild(fmt_picker);\n", " this.format_dropdown = fmt_picker;\n", "\n", " for (var ind in mpl.extensions) {\n", " var fmt = mpl.extensions[ind];\n", " var option = document.createElement('option');\n", " option.selected = fmt === mpl.default_extension;\n", " option.innerHTML = fmt;\n", " fmt_picker.appendChild(option);\n", " }\n", "\n", " var status_bar = document.createElement('span');\n", " status_bar.classList = 'mpl-message';\n", " toolbar.appendChild(status_bar);\n", " this.message = status_bar;\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.request_resize = function (x_pixels, y_pixels) {\n", " // Request matplotlib to resize the figure. Matplotlib will then trigger a resize in the client,\n", " // which will in turn request a refresh of the image.\n", " this.send_message('resize', { width: x_pixels, height: y_pixels });\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.send_message = function (type, properties) {\n", " properties['type'] = type;\n", " properties['figure_id'] = this.id;\n", " this.ws.send(JSON.stringify(properties));\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.send_draw_message = function () {\n", " if (!this.waiting) {\n", " this.waiting = true;\n", " this.ws.send(JSON.stringify({ type: 'draw', figure_id: this.id }));\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_save = function (fig, _msg) {\n", " var format_dropdown = fig.format_dropdown;\n", " var format = format_dropdown.options[format_dropdown.selectedIndex].value;\n", " fig.ondownload(fig, format);\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_resize = function (fig, msg) {\n", " var size = msg['size'];\n", " if (size[0] !== fig.canvas.width || size[1] !== fig.canvas.height) {\n", " fig._resize_canvas(size[0], size[1], msg['forward']);\n", " fig.send_message('refresh', {});\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_rubberband = function (fig, msg) {\n", " var x0 = msg['x0'] / fig.ratio;\n", " var y0 = (fig.canvas.height - msg['y0']) / fig.ratio;\n", " var x1 = msg['x1'] / fig.ratio;\n", " var y1 = (fig.canvas.height - msg['y1']) / fig.ratio;\n", " x0 = Math.floor(x0) + 0.5;\n", " y0 = Math.floor(y0) + 0.5;\n", " x1 = Math.floor(x1) + 0.5;\n", " y1 = Math.floor(y1) + 0.5;\n", " var min_x = Math.min(x0, x1);\n", " var min_y = Math.min(y0, y1);\n", " var width = Math.abs(x1 - x0);\n", " var height = Math.abs(y1 - y0);\n", "\n", " fig.rubberband_context.clearRect(\n", " 0,\n", " 0,\n", " fig.canvas.width / fig.ratio,\n", " fig.canvas.height / fig.ratio\n", " );\n", "\n", " fig.rubberband_context.strokeRect(min_x, min_y, width, height);\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_figure_label = function (fig, msg) {\n", " // Updates the figure title.\n", " fig.header.textContent = msg['label'];\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_cursor = function (fig, msg) {\n", " fig.canvas_div.style.cursor = msg['cursor'];\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_message = function (fig, msg) {\n", " fig.message.textContent = msg['message'];\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_draw = function (fig, _msg) {\n", " // Request the server to send over a new figure.\n", " fig.send_draw_message();\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_image_mode = function (fig, msg) {\n", " fig.image_mode = msg['mode'];\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_history_buttons = function (fig, msg) {\n", " for (var key in msg) {\n", " if (!(key in fig.buttons)) {\n", " continue;\n", " }\n", " fig.buttons[key].disabled = !msg[key];\n", " fig.buttons[key].setAttribute('aria-disabled', !msg[key]);\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_navigate_mode = function (fig, msg) {\n", " if (msg['mode'] === 'PAN') {\n", " fig.buttons['Pan'].classList.add('active');\n", " fig.buttons['Zoom'].classList.remove('active');\n", " } else if (msg['mode'] === 'ZOOM') {\n", " fig.buttons['Pan'].classList.remove('active');\n", " fig.buttons['Zoom'].classList.add('active');\n", " } else {\n", " fig.buttons['Pan'].classList.remove('active');\n", " fig.buttons['Zoom'].classList.remove('active');\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.updated_canvas_event = function () {\n", " // Called whenever the canvas gets updated.\n", " this.send_message('ack', {});\n", "};\n", "\n", "// A function to construct a web socket function for onmessage handling.\n", "// Called in the figure constructor.\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._make_on_message_function = function (fig) {\n", " return function socket_on_message(evt) {\n", " if (evt.data instanceof Blob) {\n", " var img = evt.data;\n", " if (img.type !== 'image/png') {\n", " /* FIXME: We get \"Resource interpreted as Image but\n", " * transferred with MIME type text/plain:\" errors on\n", " * Chrome. But how to set the MIME type? It doesn't seem\n", " * to be part of the websocket stream */\n", " img.type = 'image/png';\n", " }\n", "\n", " /* Free the memory for the previous frames */\n", " if (fig.imageObj.src) {\n", " (window.URL || window.webkitURL).revokeObjectURL(\n", " fig.imageObj.src\n", " );\n", " }\n", "\n", " fig.imageObj.src = (window.URL || window.webkitURL).createObjectURL(\n", " img\n", " );\n", " fig.updated_canvas_event();\n", " fig.waiting = false;\n", " return;\n", " } else if (\n", " typeof evt.data === 'string' &&\n", " evt.data.slice(0, 21) === 'data:image/png;base64'\n", " ) {\n", " fig.imageObj.src = evt.data;\n", " fig.updated_canvas_event();\n", " fig.waiting = false;\n", " return;\n", " }\n", "\n", " var msg = JSON.parse(evt.data);\n", " var msg_type = msg['type'];\n", "\n", " // Call the \"handle_{type}\" callback, which takes\n", " // the figure and JSON message as its only arguments.\n", " try {\n", " var callback = fig['handle_' + msg_type];\n", " } catch (e) {\n", " console.log(\n", " \"No handler for the '\" + msg_type + \"' message type: \",\n", " msg\n", " );\n", " return;\n", " }\n", "\n", " if (callback) {\n", " try {\n", " // console.log(\"Handling '\" + msg_type + \"' message: \", msg);\n", " callback(fig, msg);\n", " } catch (e) {\n", " console.log(\n", " \"Exception inside the 'handler_\" + msg_type + \"' callback:\",\n", " e,\n", " e.stack,\n", " msg\n", " );\n", " }\n", " }\n", " };\n", "};\n", "\n", "function getModifiers(event) {\n", " var mods = [];\n", " if (event.ctrlKey) {\n", " mods.push('ctrl');\n", " }\n", " if (event.altKey) {\n", " mods.push('alt');\n", " }\n", " if (event.shiftKey) {\n", " mods.push('shift');\n", " }\n", " if (event.metaKey) {\n", " mods.push('meta');\n", " }\n", " return mods;\n", "}\n", "\n", "/*\n", " * return a copy of an object with only non-object keys\n", " * we need this to avoid circular references\n", " * https://stackoverflow.com/a/24161582/3208463\n", " */\n", "function simpleKeys(original) {\n", " return Object.keys(original).reduce(function (obj, key) {\n", " if (typeof original[key] !== 'object') {\n", " obj[key] = original[key];\n", " }\n", " return obj;\n", " }, {});\n", "}\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.mouse_event = function (event, name) {\n", " if (name === 'button_press') {\n", " this.canvas.focus();\n", " this.canvas_div.focus();\n", " }\n", "\n", " // from https://stackoverflow.com/q/1114465\n", " var boundingRect = this.canvas.getBoundingClientRect();\n", " var x = (event.clientX - boundingRect.left) * this.ratio;\n", " var y = (event.clientY - boundingRect.top) * this.ratio;\n", "\n", " this.send_message(name, {\n", " x: x,\n", " y: y,\n", " button: event.button,\n", " step: event.step,\n", " modifiers: getModifiers(event),\n", " guiEvent: simpleKeys(event),\n", " });\n", "\n", " return false;\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._key_event_extra = function (_event, _name) {\n", " // Handle any extra behaviour associated with a key event\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.key_event = function (event, name) {\n", " // Prevent repeat events\n", " if (name === 'key_press') {\n", " if (event.key === this._key) {\n", " return;\n", " } else {\n", " this._key = event.key;\n", " }\n", " }\n", " if (name === 'key_release') {\n", " this._key = null;\n", " }\n", "\n", " var value = '';\n", " if (event.ctrlKey && event.key !== 'Control') {\n", " value += 'ctrl+';\n", " }\n", " else if (event.altKey && event.key !== 'Alt') {\n", " value += 'alt+';\n", " }\n", " else if (event.shiftKey && event.key !== 'Shift') {\n", " value += 'shift+';\n", " }\n", "\n", " value += 'k' + event.key;\n", "\n", " this._key_event_extra(event, name);\n", "\n", " this.send_message(name, { key: value, guiEvent: simpleKeys(event) });\n", " return false;\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.toolbar_button_onclick = function (name) {\n", " if (name === 'download') {\n", " this.handle_save(this, null);\n", " } else {\n", " this.send_message('toolbar_button', { name: name });\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.toolbar_button_onmouseover = function (tooltip) {\n", " this.message.textContent = tooltip;\n", "};\n", "\n", "///////////////// REMAINING CONTENT GENERATED BY embed_js.py /////////////////\n", "// prettier-ignore\n", "var _JSXTOOLS_RESIZE_OBSERVER=function(A){var t,i=new WeakMap,n=new WeakMap,a=new WeakMap,r=new WeakMap,o=new Set;function s(e){if(!(this instanceof s))throw new TypeError(\"Constructor requires 'new' operator\");i.set(this,e)}function h(){throw new TypeError(\"Function is not a constructor\")}function c(e,t,i,n){e=0 in arguments?Number(arguments[0]):0,t=1 in arguments?Number(arguments[1]):0,i=2 in arguments?Number(arguments[2]):0,n=3 in arguments?Number(arguments[3]):0,this.right=(this.x=this.left=e)+(this.width=i),this.bottom=(this.y=this.top=t)+(this.height=n),Object.freeze(this)}function d(){t=requestAnimationFrame(d);var s=new WeakMap,p=new Set;o.forEach((function(t){r.get(t).forEach((function(i){var r=t instanceof window.SVGElement,o=a.get(t),d=r?0:parseFloat(o.paddingTop),f=r?0:parseFloat(o.paddingRight),l=r?0:parseFloat(o.paddingBottom),u=r?0:parseFloat(o.paddingLeft),g=r?0:parseFloat(o.borderTopWidth),m=r?0:parseFloat(o.borderRightWidth),w=r?0:parseFloat(o.borderBottomWidth),b=u+f,F=d+l,v=(r?0:parseFloat(o.borderLeftWidth))+m,W=g+w,y=r?0:t.offsetHeight-W-t.clientHeight,E=r?0:t.offsetWidth-v-t.clientWidth,R=b+v,z=F+W,M=r?t.width:parseFloat(o.width)-R-E,O=r?t.height:parseFloat(o.height)-z-y;if(n.has(t)){var k=n.get(t);if(k[0]===M&&k[1]===O)return}n.set(t,[M,O]);var S=Object.create(h.prototype);S.target=t,S.contentRect=new c(u,d,M,O),s.has(i)||(s.set(i,[]),p.add(i)),s.get(i).push(S)}))})),p.forEach((function(e){i.get(e).call(e,s.get(e),e)}))}return s.prototype.observe=function(i){if(i instanceof window.Element){r.has(i)||(r.set(i,new Set),o.add(i),a.set(i,window.getComputedStyle(i)));var n=r.get(i);n.has(this)||n.add(this),cancelAnimationFrame(t),t=requestAnimationFrame(d)}},s.prototype.unobserve=function(i){if(i instanceof window.Element&&r.has(i)){var n=r.get(i);n.has(this)&&(n.delete(this),n.size||(r.delete(i),o.delete(i))),n.size||r.delete(i),o.size||cancelAnimationFrame(t)}},A.DOMRectReadOnly=c,A.ResizeObserver=s,A.ResizeObserverEntry=h,A}; // eslint-disable-line\n", "mpl.toolbar_items = [[\"Home\", \"Reset original view\", \"fa fa-home\", \"home\"], [\"Back\", \"Back to previous view\", \"fa fa-arrow-left\", \"back\"], [\"Forward\", \"Forward to next view\", \"fa fa-arrow-right\", \"forward\"], [\"\", \"\", \"\", \"\"], [\"Pan\", \"Left button pans, Right button zooms\\nx/y fixes axis, CTRL fixes aspect\", \"fa fa-arrows\", \"pan\"], [\"Zoom\", \"Zoom to rectangle\\nx/y fixes axis\", \"fa fa-square-o\", \"zoom\"], [\"\", \"\", \"\", \"\"], [\"Download\", \"Download plot\", \"fa fa-floppy-o\", \"download\"]];\n", "\n", "mpl.extensions = [\"eps\", \"jpeg\", \"pgf\", \"pdf\", \"png\", \"ps\", \"raw\", \"svg\", \"tif\", \"webp\"];\n", "\n", "mpl.default_extension = \"png\";/* global mpl */\n", "\n", "var comm_websocket_adapter = function (comm) {\n", " // Create a \"websocket\"-like object which calls the given IPython comm\n", " // object with the appropriate methods. Currently this is a non binary\n", " // socket, so there is still some room for performance tuning.\n", " var ws = {};\n", "\n", " ws.binaryType = comm.kernel.ws.binaryType;\n", " ws.readyState = comm.kernel.ws.readyState;\n", " function updateReadyState(_event) {\n", " if (comm.kernel.ws) {\n", " ws.readyState = comm.kernel.ws.readyState;\n", " } else {\n", " ws.readyState = 3; // Closed state.\n", " }\n", " }\n", " comm.kernel.ws.addEventListener('open', updateReadyState);\n", " comm.kernel.ws.addEventListener('close', updateReadyState);\n", " comm.kernel.ws.addEventListener('error', updateReadyState);\n", "\n", " ws.close = function () {\n", " comm.close();\n", " };\n", " ws.send = function (m) {\n", " //console.log('sending', m);\n", " comm.send(m);\n", " };\n", " // Register the callback with on_msg.\n", " comm.on_msg(function (msg) {\n", " //console.log('receiving', msg['content']['data'], msg);\n", " var data = msg['content']['data'];\n", " if (data['blob'] !== undefined) {\n", " data = {\n", " data: new Blob(msg['buffers'], { type: data['blob'] }),\n", " };\n", " }\n", " // Pass the mpl event to the overridden (by mpl) onmessage function.\n", " ws.onmessage(data);\n", " });\n", " return ws;\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.mpl_figure_comm = function (comm, msg) {\n", " // This is the function which gets called when the mpl process\n", " // starts-up an IPython Comm through the \"matplotlib\" channel.\n", "\n", " var id = msg.content.data.id;\n", " // Get hold of the div created by the display call when the Comm\n", " // socket was opened in Python.\n", " var element = document.getElementById(id);\n", " var ws_proxy = comm_websocket_adapter(comm);\n", "\n", " function ondownload(figure, _format) {\n", " window.open(figure.canvas.toDataURL());\n", " }\n", "\n", " var fig = new mpl.figure(id, ws_proxy, ondownload, element);\n", "\n", " // Call onopen now - mpl needs it, as it is assuming we've passed it a real\n", " // web socket which is closed, not our websocket->open comm proxy.\n", " ws_proxy.onopen();\n", "\n", " fig.parent_element = element;\n", " fig.cell_info = mpl.find_output_cell(\"
\");\n", " if (!fig.cell_info) {\n", " console.error('Failed to find cell for figure', id, fig);\n", " return;\n", " }\n", " fig.cell_info[0].output_area.element.on(\n", " 'cleared',\n", " { fig: fig },\n", " fig._remove_fig_handler\n", " );\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_close = function (fig, msg) {\n", " var width = fig.canvas.width / fig.ratio;\n", " fig.cell_info[0].output_area.element.off(\n", " 'cleared',\n", " fig._remove_fig_handler\n", " );\n", " fig.resizeObserverInstance.unobserve(fig.canvas_div);\n", "\n", " // Update the output cell to use the data from the current canvas.\n", " fig.push_to_output();\n", " var dataURL = fig.canvas.toDataURL();\n", " // Re-enable the keyboard manager in IPython - without this line, in FF,\n", " // the notebook keyboard shortcuts fail.\n", " IPython.keyboard_manager.enable();\n", " fig.parent_element.innerHTML =\n", " '';\n", " fig.close_ws(fig, msg);\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.close_ws = function (fig, msg) {\n", " fig.send_message('closing', msg);\n", " // fig.ws.close()\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.push_to_output = function (_remove_interactive) {\n", " // Turn the data on the canvas into data in the output cell.\n", " var width = this.canvas.width / this.ratio;\n", " var dataURL = this.canvas.toDataURL();\n", " this.cell_info[1]['text/html'] =\n", " '';\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.updated_canvas_event = function () {\n", " // Tell IPython that the notebook contents must change.\n", " IPython.notebook.set_dirty(true);\n", " this.send_message('ack', {});\n", " var fig = this;\n", " // Wait a second, then push the new image to the DOM so\n", " // that it is saved nicely (might be nice to debounce this).\n", " setTimeout(function () {\n", " fig.push_to_output();\n", " }, 1000);\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._init_toolbar = function () {\n", " var fig = this;\n", "\n", " var toolbar = document.createElement('div');\n", " toolbar.classList = 'btn-toolbar';\n", " this.root.appendChild(toolbar);\n", "\n", " function on_click_closure(name) {\n", " return function (_event) {\n", " return fig.toolbar_button_onclick(name);\n", " };\n", " }\n", "\n", " function on_mouseover_closure(tooltip) {\n", " return function (event) {\n", " if (!event.currentTarget.disabled) {\n", " return fig.toolbar_button_onmouseover(tooltip);\n", " }\n", " };\n", " }\n", "\n", " fig.buttons = {};\n", " var buttonGroup = document.createElement('div');\n", " buttonGroup.classList = 'btn-group';\n", " var button;\n", " for (var toolbar_ind in mpl.toolbar_items) {\n", " var name = mpl.toolbar_items[toolbar_ind][0];\n", " var tooltip = mpl.toolbar_items[toolbar_ind][1];\n", " var image = mpl.toolbar_items[toolbar_ind][2];\n", " var method_name = mpl.toolbar_items[toolbar_ind][3];\n", "\n", " if (!name) {\n", " /* Instead of a spacer, we start a new button group. */\n", " if (buttonGroup.hasChildNodes()) {\n", " toolbar.appendChild(buttonGroup);\n", " }\n", " buttonGroup = document.createElement('div');\n", " buttonGroup.classList = 'btn-group';\n", " continue;\n", " }\n", "\n", " button = fig.buttons[name] = document.createElement('button');\n", " button.classList = 'btn btn-default';\n", " button.href = '#';\n", " button.title = name;\n", " button.innerHTML = '';\n", " button.addEventListener('click', on_click_closure(method_name));\n", " button.addEventListener('mouseover', on_mouseover_closure(tooltip));\n", " buttonGroup.appendChild(button);\n", " }\n", "\n", " if (buttonGroup.hasChildNodes()) {\n", " toolbar.appendChild(buttonGroup);\n", " }\n", "\n", " // Add the status bar.\n", " var status_bar = document.createElement('span');\n", " status_bar.classList = 'mpl-message pull-right';\n", " toolbar.appendChild(status_bar);\n", " this.message = status_bar;\n", "\n", " // Add the close button to the window.\n", " var buttongrp = document.createElement('div');\n", " buttongrp.classList = 'btn-group inline pull-right';\n", " button = document.createElement('button');\n", " button.classList = 'btn btn-mini btn-primary';\n", " button.href = '#';\n", " button.title = 'Stop Interaction';\n", " button.innerHTML = '';\n", " button.addEventListener('click', function (_evt) {\n", " fig.handle_close(fig, {});\n", " });\n", " button.addEventListener(\n", " 'mouseover',\n", " on_mouseover_closure('Stop Interaction')\n", " );\n", " buttongrp.appendChild(button);\n", " var titlebar = this.root.querySelector('.ui-dialog-titlebar');\n", " titlebar.insertBefore(buttongrp, titlebar.firstChild);\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._remove_fig_handler = function (event) {\n", " var fig = event.data.fig;\n", " if (event.target !== this) {\n", " // Ignore bubbled events from children.\n", " return;\n", " }\n", " fig.close_ws(fig, {});\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._root_extra_style = function (el) {\n", " el.style.boxSizing = 'content-box'; // override notebook setting of border-box.\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._canvas_extra_style = function (el) {\n", " // this is important to make the div 'focusable\n", " el.setAttribute('tabindex', 0);\n", " // reach out to IPython and tell the keyboard manager to turn it's self\n", " // off when our div gets focus\n", "\n", " // location in version 3\n", " if (IPython.notebook.keyboard_manager) {\n", " IPython.notebook.keyboard_manager.register_events(el);\n", " } else {\n", " // location in version 2\n", " IPython.keyboard_manager.register_events(el);\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._key_event_extra = function (event, _name) {\n", " // Check for shift+enter\n", " if (event.shiftKey && event.which === 13) {\n", " this.canvas_div.blur();\n", " // select the cell after this one\n", " var index = IPython.notebook.find_cell_index(this.cell_info[0]);\n", " IPython.notebook.select(index + 1);\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_save = function (fig, _msg) {\n", " fig.ondownload(fig, null);\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.find_output_cell = function (html_output) {\n", " // Return the cell and output element which can be found *uniquely* in the notebook.\n", " // Note - this is a bit hacky, but it is done because the \"notebook_saving.Notebook\"\n", " // IPython event is triggered only after the cells have been serialised, which for\n", " // our purposes (turning an active figure into a static one), is too late.\n", " var cells = IPython.notebook.get_cells();\n", " var ncells = cells.length;\n", " for (var i = 0; i < ncells; i++) {\n", " var cell = cells[i];\n", " if (cell.cell_type === 'code') {\n", " for (var j = 0; j < cell.output_area.outputs.length; j++) {\n", " var data = cell.output_area.outputs[j];\n", " if (data.data) {\n", " // IPython >= 3 moved mimebundle to data attribute of output\n", " data = data.data;\n", " }\n", " if (data['text/html'] === html_output) {\n", " return [cell, data, j];\n", " }\n", " }\n", " }\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "// Register the function which deals with the matplotlib target/channel.\n", "// The kernel may be null if the page has been refreshed.\n", "if (IPython.notebook.kernel !== null) {\n", " IPython.notebook.kernel.comm_manager.register_target(\n", " 'matplotlib',\n", " mpl.mpl_figure_comm\n", " );\n", "}\n" ], "text/plain": [ "" ] }, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "display_data" }, { "data": { "text/html": [ "" ], "text/plain": [ "" ] }, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "display_data" } ], "source": [ "fig1 = plt.figure()\n", "ax = plt.axes(projection='3d')\n", "ax.scatter(0, 0, 0, marker='+', color='black')\n", "\n", "ax.plot3D(path_1_1[:, 0],\n", " path_1_1[:, 1],\n", " path_1_1[:, 2],\n", " '-',\n", " linewidth=1.5,\n", " markersize=0,\n", " marker='.',\n", " color='green',\n", " alpha=0.7)\n", "\n", "plt.show()\n" ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": {}, "source": [ "## Sub-Riemannian structures as limits of Riemannian structures" ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": {}, "source": [ "If the distribution $\\Delta$ is of the same dimension as the manifold at every point, the structure is actually Riemannian. In geomtats, if the manifold is $n$-dimensional and we pass a frame function with $n$ linearly independent vectors at every point, this will generate the Riemannian structure with a metric that makes these vectors orthonormal at every point. \n", "\n", "For the heisenberg group, we can use the frame given by left-translation of the standard basis in the Lie algebra, $$\\{F_X(p), F_Y(p), \\epsilon\\cdot F_Z(p)\\},$$ where $\\epsilon \\in [0,1]$. For $\\epsilon=0$ the geodesics will be those of the standard Heisenberg group. For $\\epsilon = 1$ the geodesics will be those of the left-invariant Riemannian metric which on the algebra is simply the euclidean metric.\n" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 9, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [], "source": [ "def heis_frame_riemannian(point, epsilon):\n", " frame_matrix = heis.jacobian_translation(point)\n", " scale_matrix = gs.array([gs.ones((3,)), gs.ones((3,)), gs.ones((3,))*epsilon]).T\n", " return gs.einsum('...ij,...ij -> ...ij', frame_matrix, scale_matrix)\n", "\n", "heis_epsilon_1 = SubRiemannianMetric(heis, frame=lambda point : heis_frame_riemannian(point, 1))\n", "heis_epsilon_0 = SubRiemannianMetric(heis, frame=lambda point : heis_frame_riemannian(point, 0))\n" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 10, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "application/javascript": [ "/* Put everything inside the global mpl namespace */\n", "/* global mpl */\n", "window.mpl = {};\n", "\n", "mpl.get_websocket_type = function () {\n", " if (typeof WebSocket !== 'undefined') {\n", " return WebSocket;\n", " } else if (typeof MozWebSocket !== 'undefined') {\n", " return MozWebSocket;\n", " } else {\n", " alert(\n", " 'Your browser does not have WebSocket support. ' +\n", " 'Please try Chrome, Safari or Firefox ≥ 6. ' +\n", " 'Firefox 4 and 5 are also supported but you ' +\n", " 'have to enable WebSockets in about:config.'\n", " );\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure = function (figure_id, websocket, ondownload, parent_element) {\n", " this.id = figure_id;\n", "\n", " this.ws = websocket;\n", "\n", " this.supports_binary = this.ws.binaryType !== undefined;\n", "\n", " if (!this.supports_binary) {\n", " var warnings = document.getElementById('mpl-warnings');\n", " if (warnings) {\n", " warnings.style.display = 'block';\n", " warnings.textContent =\n", " 'This browser does not support binary websocket messages. ' +\n", " 'Performance may be slow.';\n", " }\n", " }\n", "\n", " this.imageObj = new Image();\n", "\n", " this.context = undefined;\n", " this.message = undefined;\n", " this.canvas = undefined;\n", " this.rubberband_canvas = undefined;\n", " this.rubberband_context = undefined;\n", " this.format_dropdown = undefined;\n", "\n", " this.image_mode = 'full';\n", "\n", " this.root = document.createElement('div');\n", " this.root.setAttribute('style', 'display: inline-block');\n", " this._root_extra_style(this.root);\n", "\n", " parent_element.appendChild(this.root);\n", "\n", " this._init_header(this);\n", " this._init_canvas(this);\n", " this._init_toolbar(this);\n", "\n", " var fig = this;\n", "\n", " this.waiting = false;\n", "\n", " this.ws.onopen = function () {\n", " fig.send_message('supports_binary', { value: fig.supports_binary });\n", " fig.send_message('send_image_mode', {});\n", " if (fig.ratio !== 1) {\n", " fig.send_message('set_device_pixel_ratio', {\n", " device_pixel_ratio: fig.ratio,\n", " });\n", " }\n", " fig.send_message('refresh', {});\n", " };\n", "\n", " this.imageObj.onload = function () {\n", " if (fig.image_mode === 'full') {\n", " // Full images could contain transparency (where diff images\n", " // almost always do), so we need to clear the canvas so that\n", " // there is no ghosting.\n", " fig.context.clearRect(0, 0, fig.canvas.width, fig.canvas.height);\n", " }\n", " fig.context.drawImage(fig.imageObj, 0, 0);\n", " };\n", "\n", " this.imageObj.onunload = function () {\n", " fig.ws.close();\n", " };\n", "\n", " this.ws.onmessage = this._make_on_message_function(this);\n", "\n", " this.ondownload = ondownload;\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._init_header = function () {\n", " var titlebar = document.createElement('div');\n", " titlebar.classList =\n", " 'ui-dialog-titlebar ui-widget-header ui-corner-all ui-helper-clearfix';\n", " var titletext = document.createElement('div');\n", " titletext.classList = 'ui-dialog-title';\n", " titletext.setAttribute(\n", " 'style',\n", " 'width: 100%; text-align: center; padding: 3px;'\n", " );\n", " titlebar.appendChild(titletext);\n", " this.root.appendChild(titlebar);\n", " this.header = titletext;\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._canvas_extra_style = function (_canvas_div) {};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._root_extra_style = function (_canvas_div) {};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._init_canvas = function () {\n", " var fig = this;\n", "\n", " var canvas_div = (this.canvas_div = document.createElement('div'));\n", " canvas_div.setAttribute('tabindex', '0');\n", " canvas_div.setAttribute(\n", " 'style',\n", " 'border: 1px solid #ddd;' +\n", " 'box-sizing: content-box;' +\n", " 'clear: both;' +\n", " 'min-height: 1px;' +\n", " 'min-width: 1px;' +\n", " 'outline: 0;' +\n", " 'overflow: hidden;' +\n", " 'position: relative;' +\n", " 'resize: both;' +\n", " 'z-index: 2;'\n", " );\n", "\n", " function on_keyboard_event_closure(name) {\n", " return function (event) {\n", " return fig.key_event(event, name);\n", " };\n", " }\n", "\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener(\n", " 'keydown',\n", " on_keyboard_event_closure('key_press')\n", " );\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener(\n", " 'keyup',\n", " on_keyboard_event_closure('key_release')\n", " );\n", "\n", " this._canvas_extra_style(canvas_div);\n", " this.root.appendChild(canvas_div);\n", "\n", " var canvas = (this.canvas = document.createElement('canvas'));\n", " canvas.classList.add('mpl-canvas');\n", " canvas.setAttribute(\n", " 'style',\n", " 'box-sizing: content-box;' +\n", " 'pointer-events: none;' +\n", " 'position: relative;' +\n", " 'z-index: 0;'\n", " );\n", "\n", " this.context = canvas.getContext('2d');\n", "\n", " var backingStore =\n", " this.context.backingStorePixelRatio ||\n", " this.context.webkitBackingStorePixelRatio ||\n", " this.context.mozBackingStorePixelRatio ||\n", " this.context.msBackingStorePixelRatio ||\n", " this.context.oBackingStorePixelRatio ||\n", " this.context.backingStorePixelRatio ||\n", " 1;\n", "\n", " this.ratio = (window.devicePixelRatio || 1) / backingStore;\n", "\n", " var rubberband_canvas = (this.rubberband_canvas = document.createElement(\n", " 'canvas'\n", " ));\n", " rubberband_canvas.setAttribute(\n", " 'style',\n", " 'box-sizing: content-box;' +\n", " 'left: 0;' +\n", " 'pointer-events: none;' +\n", " 'position: absolute;' +\n", " 'top: 0;' +\n", " 'z-index: 1;'\n", " );\n", "\n", " // Apply a ponyfill if ResizeObserver is not implemented by browser.\n", " if (this.ResizeObserver === undefined) {\n", " if (window.ResizeObserver !== undefined) {\n", " this.ResizeObserver = window.ResizeObserver;\n", " } else {\n", " var obs = _JSXTOOLS_RESIZE_OBSERVER({});\n", " this.ResizeObserver = obs.ResizeObserver;\n", " }\n", " }\n", "\n", " this.resizeObserverInstance = new this.ResizeObserver(function (entries) {\n", " var nentries = entries.length;\n", " for (var i = 0; i < nentries; i++) {\n", " var entry = entries[i];\n", " var width, height;\n", " if (entry.contentBoxSize) {\n", " if (entry.contentBoxSize instanceof Array) {\n", " // Chrome 84 implements new version of spec.\n", " width = entry.contentBoxSize[0].inlineSize;\n", " height = entry.contentBoxSize[0].blockSize;\n", " } else {\n", " // Firefox implements old version of spec.\n", " width = entry.contentBoxSize.inlineSize;\n", " height = entry.contentBoxSize.blockSize;\n", " }\n", " } else {\n", " // Chrome <84 implements even older version of spec.\n", " width = entry.contentRect.width;\n", " height = entry.contentRect.height;\n", " }\n", "\n", " // Keep the size of the canvas and rubber band canvas in sync with\n", " // the canvas container.\n", " if (entry.devicePixelContentBoxSize) {\n", " // Chrome 84 implements new version of spec.\n", " canvas.setAttribute(\n", " 'width',\n", " entry.devicePixelContentBoxSize[0].inlineSize\n", " );\n", " canvas.setAttribute(\n", " 'height',\n", " entry.devicePixelContentBoxSize[0].blockSize\n", " );\n", " } else {\n", " canvas.setAttribute('width', width * fig.ratio);\n", " canvas.setAttribute('height', height * fig.ratio);\n", " }\n", " /* This rescales the canvas back to display pixels, so that it\n", " * appears correct on HiDPI screens. */\n", " canvas.style.width = width + 'px';\n", " canvas.style.height = height + 'px';\n", "\n", " rubberband_canvas.setAttribute('width', width);\n", " rubberband_canvas.setAttribute('height', height);\n", "\n", " // And update the size in Python. We ignore the initial 0/0 size\n", " // that occurs as the element is placed into the DOM, which should\n", " // otherwise not happen due to the minimum size styling.\n", " if (fig.ws.readyState == 1 && width != 0 && height != 0) {\n", " fig.request_resize(width, height);\n", " }\n", " }\n", " });\n", " this.resizeObserverInstance.observe(canvas_div);\n", "\n", " function on_mouse_event_closure(name) {\n", " /* User Agent sniffing is bad, but WebKit is busted:\n", " * https://bugs.webkit.org/show_bug.cgi?id=144526\n", " * https://bugs.webkit.org/show_bug.cgi?id=181818\n", " * The worst that happens here is that they get an extra browser\n", " * selection when dragging, if this check fails to catch them.\n", " */\n", " var UA = navigator.userAgent;\n", " var isWebKit = /AppleWebKit/.test(UA) && !/Chrome/.test(UA);\n", " if(isWebKit) {\n", " return function (event) {\n", " /* This prevents the web browser from automatically changing to\n", " * the text insertion cursor when the button is pressed. We\n", " * want to control all of the cursor setting manually through\n", " * the 'cursor' event from matplotlib */\n", " event.preventDefault()\n", " return fig.mouse_event(event, name);\n", " };\n", " } else {\n", " return function (event) {\n", " return fig.mouse_event(event, name);\n", " };\n", " }\n", " }\n", "\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener(\n", " 'mousedown',\n", " on_mouse_event_closure('button_press')\n", " );\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener(\n", " 'mouseup',\n", " on_mouse_event_closure('button_release')\n", " );\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener(\n", " 'dblclick',\n", " on_mouse_event_closure('dblclick')\n", " );\n", " // Throttle sequential mouse events to 1 every 20ms.\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener(\n", " 'mousemove',\n", " on_mouse_event_closure('motion_notify')\n", " );\n", "\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener(\n", " 'mouseenter',\n", " on_mouse_event_closure('figure_enter')\n", " );\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener(\n", " 'mouseleave',\n", " on_mouse_event_closure('figure_leave')\n", " );\n", "\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener('wheel', function (event) {\n", " if (event.deltaY < 0) {\n", " event.step = 1;\n", " } else {\n", " event.step = -1;\n", " }\n", " on_mouse_event_closure('scroll')(event);\n", " });\n", "\n", " canvas_div.appendChild(canvas);\n", " canvas_div.appendChild(rubberband_canvas);\n", "\n", " this.rubberband_context = rubberband_canvas.getContext('2d');\n", " this.rubberband_context.strokeStyle = '#000000';\n", "\n", " this._resize_canvas = function (width, height, forward) {\n", " if (forward) {\n", " canvas_div.style.width = width + 'px';\n", " canvas_div.style.height = height + 'px';\n", " }\n", " };\n", "\n", " // Disable right mouse context menu.\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener('contextmenu', function (_e) {\n", " event.preventDefault();\n", " return false;\n", " });\n", "\n", " function set_focus() {\n", " canvas.focus();\n", " canvas_div.focus();\n", " }\n", "\n", " window.setTimeout(set_focus, 100);\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._init_toolbar = function () {\n", " var fig = this;\n", "\n", " var toolbar = document.createElement('div');\n", " toolbar.classList = 'mpl-toolbar';\n", " this.root.appendChild(toolbar);\n", "\n", " function on_click_closure(name) {\n", " return function (_event) {\n", " return fig.toolbar_button_onclick(name);\n", " };\n", " }\n", "\n", " function on_mouseover_closure(tooltip) {\n", " return function (event) {\n", " if (!event.currentTarget.disabled) {\n", " return fig.toolbar_button_onmouseover(tooltip);\n", " }\n", " };\n", " }\n", "\n", " fig.buttons = {};\n", " var buttonGroup = document.createElement('div');\n", " buttonGroup.classList = 'mpl-button-group';\n", " for (var toolbar_ind in mpl.toolbar_items) {\n", " var name = mpl.toolbar_items[toolbar_ind][0];\n", " var tooltip = mpl.toolbar_items[toolbar_ind][1];\n", " var image = mpl.toolbar_items[toolbar_ind][2];\n", " var method_name = mpl.toolbar_items[toolbar_ind][3];\n", "\n", " if (!name) {\n", " /* Instead of a spacer, we start a new button group. */\n", " if (buttonGroup.hasChildNodes()) {\n", " toolbar.appendChild(buttonGroup);\n", " }\n", " buttonGroup = document.createElement('div');\n", " buttonGroup.classList = 'mpl-button-group';\n", " continue;\n", " }\n", "\n", " var button = (fig.buttons[name] = document.createElement('button'));\n", " button.classList = 'mpl-widget';\n", " button.setAttribute('role', 'button');\n", " button.setAttribute('aria-disabled', 'false');\n", " button.addEventListener('click', on_click_closure(method_name));\n", " button.addEventListener('mouseover', on_mouseover_closure(tooltip));\n", "\n", " var icon_img = document.createElement('img');\n", " icon_img.src = '_images/' + image + '.png';\n", " icon_img.srcset = '_images/' + image + '_large.png 2x';\n", " icon_img.alt = tooltip;\n", " button.appendChild(icon_img);\n", "\n", " buttonGroup.appendChild(button);\n", " }\n", "\n", " if (buttonGroup.hasChildNodes()) {\n", " toolbar.appendChild(buttonGroup);\n", " }\n", "\n", " var fmt_picker = document.createElement('select');\n", " fmt_picker.classList = 'mpl-widget';\n", " toolbar.appendChild(fmt_picker);\n", " this.format_dropdown = fmt_picker;\n", "\n", " for (var ind in mpl.extensions) {\n", " var fmt = mpl.extensions[ind];\n", " var option = document.createElement('option');\n", " option.selected = fmt === mpl.default_extension;\n", " option.innerHTML = fmt;\n", " fmt_picker.appendChild(option);\n", " }\n", "\n", " var status_bar = document.createElement('span');\n", " status_bar.classList = 'mpl-message';\n", " toolbar.appendChild(status_bar);\n", " this.message = status_bar;\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.request_resize = function (x_pixels, y_pixels) {\n", " // Request matplotlib to resize the figure. Matplotlib will then trigger a resize in the client,\n", " // which will in turn request a refresh of the image.\n", " this.send_message('resize', { width: x_pixels, height: y_pixels });\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.send_message = function (type, properties) {\n", " properties['type'] = type;\n", " properties['figure_id'] = this.id;\n", " this.ws.send(JSON.stringify(properties));\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.send_draw_message = function () {\n", " if (!this.waiting) {\n", " this.waiting = true;\n", " this.ws.send(JSON.stringify({ type: 'draw', figure_id: this.id }));\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_save = function (fig, _msg) {\n", " var format_dropdown = fig.format_dropdown;\n", " var format = format_dropdown.options[format_dropdown.selectedIndex].value;\n", " fig.ondownload(fig, format);\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_resize = function (fig, msg) {\n", " var size = msg['size'];\n", " if (size[0] !== fig.canvas.width || size[1] !== fig.canvas.height) {\n", " fig._resize_canvas(size[0], size[1], msg['forward']);\n", " fig.send_message('refresh', {});\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_rubberband = function (fig, msg) {\n", " var x0 = msg['x0'] / fig.ratio;\n", " var y0 = (fig.canvas.height - msg['y0']) / fig.ratio;\n", " var x1 = msg['x1'] / fig.ratio;\n", " var y1 = (fig.canvas.height - msg['y1']) / fig.ratio;\n", " x0 = Math.floor(x0) + 0.5;\n", " y0 = Math.floor(y0) + 0.5;\n", " x1 = Math.floor(x1) + 0.5;\n", " y1 = Math.floor(y1) + 0.5;\n", " var min_x = Math.min(x0, x1);\n", " var min_y = Math.min(y0, y1);\n", " var width = Math.abs(x1 - x0);\n", " var height = Math.abs(y1 - y0);\n", "\n", " fig.rubberband_context.clearRect(\n", " 0,\n", " 0,\n", " fig.canvas.width / fig.ratio,\n", " fig.canvas.height / fig.ratio\n", " );\n", "\n", " fig.rubberband_context.strokeRect(min_x, min_y, width, height);\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_figure_label = function (fig, msg) {\n", " // Updates the figure title.\n", " fig.header.textContent = msg['label'];\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_cursor = function (fig, msg) {\n", " fig.canvas_div.style.cursor = msg['cursor'];\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_message = function (fig, msg) {\n", " fig.message.textContent = msg['message'];\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_draw = function (fig, _msg) {\n", " // Request the server to send over a new figure.\n", " fig.send_draw_message();\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_image_mode = function (fig, msg) {\n", " fig.image_mode = msg['mode'];\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_history_buttons = function (fig, msg) {\n", " for (var key in msg) {\n", " if (!(key in fig.buttons)) {\n", " continue;\n", " }\n", " fig.buttons[key].disabled = !msg[key];\n", " fig.buttons[key].setAttribute('aria-disabled', !msg[key]);\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_navigate_mode = function (fig, msg) {\n", " if (msg['mode'] === 'PAN') {\n", " fig.buttons['Pan'].classList.add('active');\n", " fig.buttons['Zoom'].classList.remove('active');\n", " } else if (msg['mode'] === 'ZOOM') {\n", " fig.buttons['Pan'].classList.remove('active');\n", " fig.buttons['Zoom'].classList.add('active');\n", " } else {\n", " fig.buttons['Pan'].classList.remove('active');\n", " fig.buttons['Zoom'].classList.remove('active');\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.updated_canvas_event = function () {\n", " // Called whenever the canvas gets updated.\n", " this.send_message('ack', {});\n", "};\n", "\n", "// A function to construct a web socket function for onmessage handling.\n", "// Called in the figure constructor.\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._make_on_message_function = function (fig) {\n", " return function socket_on_message(evt) {\n", " if (evt.data instanceof Blob) {\n", " var img = evt.data;\n", " if (img.type !== 'image/png') {\n", " /* FIXME: We get \"Resource interpreted as Image but\n", " * transferred with MIME type text/plain:\" errors on\n", " * Chrome. But how to set the MIME type? It doesn't seem\n", " * to be part of the websocket stream */\n", " img.type = 'image/png';\n", " }\n", "\n", " /* Free the memory for the previous frames */\n", " if (fig.imageObj.src) {\n", " (window.URL || window.webkitURL).revokeObjectURL(\n", " fig.imageObj.src\n", " );\n", " }\n", "\n", " fig.imageObj.src = (window.URL || window.webkitURL).createObjectURL(\n", " img\n", " );\n", " fig.updated_canvas_event();\n", " fig.waiting = false;\n", " return;\n", " } else if (\n", " typeof evt.data === 'string' &&\n", " evt.data.slice(0, 21) === 'data:image/png;base64'\n", " ) {\n", " fig.imageObj.src = evt.data;\n", " fig.updated_canvas_event();\n", " fig.waiting = false;\n", " return;\n", " }\n", "\n", " var msg = JSON.parse(evt.data);\n", " var msg_type = msg['type'];\n", "\n", " // Call the \"handle_{type}\" callback, which takes\n", " // the figure and JSON message as its only arguments.\n", " try {\n", " var callback = fig['handle_' + msg_type];\n", " } catch (e) {\n", " console.log(\n", " \"No handler for the '\" + msg_type + \"' message type: \",\n", " msg\n", " );\n", " return;\n", " }\n", "\n", " if (callback) {\n", " try {\n", " // console.log(\"Handling '\" + msg_type + \"' message: \", msg);\n", " callback(fig, msg);\n", " } catch (e) {\n", " console.log(\n", " \"Exception inside the 'handler_\" + msg_type + \"' callback:\",\n", " e,\n", " e.stack,\n", " msg\n", " );\n", " }\n", " }\n", " };\n", "};\n", "\n", "function getModifiers(event) {\n", " var mods = [];\n", " if (event.ctrlKey) {\n", " mods.push('ctrl');\n", " }\n", " if (event.altKey) {\n", " mods.push('alt');\n", " }\n", " if (event.shiftKey) {\n", " mods.push('shift');\n", " }\n", " if (event.metaKey) {\n", " mods.push('meta');\n", " }\n", " return mods;\n", "}\n", "\n", "/*\n", " * return a copy of an object with only non-object keys\n", " * we need this to avoid circular references\n", " * https://stackoverflow.com/a/24161582/3208463\n", " */\n", "function simpleKeys(original) {\n", " return Object.keys(original).reduce(function (obj, key) {\n", " if (typeof original[key] !== 'object') {\n", " obj[key] = original[key];\n", " }\n", " return obj;\n", " }, {});\n", "}\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.mouse_event = function (event, name) {\n", " if (name === 'button_press') {\n", " this.canvas.focus();\n", " this.canvas_div.focus();\n", " }\n", "\n", " // from https://stackoverflow.com/q/1114465\n", " var boundingRect = this.canvas.getBoundingClientRect();\n", " var x = (event.clientX - boundingRect.left) * this.ratio;\n", " var y = (event.clientY - boundingRect.top) * this.ratio;\n", "\n", " this.send_message(name, {\n", " x: x,\n", " y: y,\n", " button: event.button,\n", " step: event.step,\n", " modifiers: getModifiers(event),\n", " guiEvent: simpleKeys(event),\n", " });\n", "\n", " return false;\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._key_event_extra = function (_event, _name) {\n", " // Handle any extra behaviour associated with a key event\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.key_event = function (event, name) {\n", " // Prevent repeat events\n", " if (name === 'key_press') {\n", " if (event.key === this._key) {\n", " return;\n", " } else {\n", " this._key = event.key;\n", " }\n", " }\n", " if (name === 'key_release') {\n", " this._key = null;\n", " }\n", "\n", " var value = '';\n", " if (event.ctrlKey && event.key !== 'Control') {\n", " value += 'ctrl+';\n", " }\n", " else if (event.altKey && event.key !== 'Alt') {\n", " value += 'alt+';\n", " }\n", " else if (event.shiftKey && event.key !== 'Shift') {\n", " value += 'shift+';\n", " }\n", "\n", " value += 'k' + event.key;\n", "\n", " this._key_event_extra(event, name);\n", "\n", " this.send_message(name, { key: value, guiEvent: simpleKeys(event) });\n", " return false;\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.toolbar_button_onclick = function (name) {\n", " if (name === 'download') {\n", " this.handle_save(this, null);\n", " } else {\n", " this.send_message('toolbar_button', { name: name });\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.toolbar_button_onmouseover = function (tooltip) {\n", " this.message.textContent = tooltip;\n", "};\n", "\n", "///////////////// REMAINING CONTENT GENERATED BY embed_js.py /////////////////\n", "// prettier-ignore\n", "var _JSXTOOLS_RESIZE_OBSERVER=function(A){var t,i=new WeakMap,n=new WeakMap,a=new WeakMap,r=new WeakMap,o=new Set;function s(e){if(!(this instanceof s))throw new TypeError(\"Constructor requires 'new' operator\");i.set(this,e)}function h(){throw new TypeError(\"Function is not a constructor\")}function c(e,t,i,n){e=0 in arguments?Number(arguments[0]):0,t=1 in arguments?Number(arguments[1]):0,i=2 in arguments?Number(arguments[2]):0,n=3 in arguments?Number(arguments[3]):0,this.right=(this.x=this.left=e)+(this.width=i),this.bottom=(this.y=this.top=t)+(this.height=n),Object.freeze(this)}function d(){t=requestAnimationFrame(d);var s=new WeakMap,p=new Set;o.forEach((function(t){r.get(t).forEach((function(i){var r=t instanceof window.SVGElement,o=a.get(t),d=r?0:parseFloat(o.paddingTop),f=r?0:parseFloat(o.paddingRight),l=r?0:parseFloat(o.paddingBottom),u=r?0:parseFloat(o.paddingLeft),g=r?0:parseFloat(o.borderTopWidth),m=r?0:parseFloat(o.borderRightWidth),w=r?0:parseFloat(o.borderBottomWidth),b=u+f,F=d+l,v=(r?0:parseFloat(o.borderLeftWidth))+m,W=g+w,y=r?0:t.offsetHeight-W-t.clientHeight,E=r?0:t.offsetWidth-v-t.clientWidth,R=b+v,z=F+W,M=r?t.width:parseFloat(o.width)-R-E,O=r?t.height:parseFloat(o.height)-z-y;if(n.has(t)){var k=n.get(t);if(k[0]===M&&k[1]===O)return}n.set(t,[M,O]);var S=Object.create(h.prototype);S.target=t,S.contentRect=new c(u,d,M,O),s.has(i)||(s.set(i,[]),p.add(i)),s.get(i).push(S)}))})),p.forEach((function(e){i.get(e).call(e,s.get(e),e)}))}return s.prototype.observe=function(i){if(i instanceof window.Element){r.has(i)||(r.set(i,new Set),o.add(i),a.set(i,window.getComputedStyle(i)));var n=r.get(i);n.has(this)||n.add(this),cancelAnimationFrame(t),t=requestAnimationFrame(d)}},s.prototype.unobserve=function(i){if(i instanceof window.Element&&r.has(i)){var n=r.get(i);n.has(this)&&(n.delete(this),n.size||(r.delete(i),o.delete(i))),n.size||r.delete(i),o.size||cancelAnimationFrame(t)}},A.DOMRectReadOnly=c,A.ResizeObserver=s,A.ResizeObserverEntry=h,A}; // eslint-disable-line\n", "mpl.toolbar_items = [[\"Home\", \"Reset original view\", \"fa fa-home\", \"home\"], [\"Back\", \"Back to previous view\", \"fa fa-arrow-left\", \"back\"], [\"Forward\", \"Forward to next view\", \"fa fa-arrow-right\", \"forward\"], [\"\", \"\", \"\", \"\"], [\"Pan\", \"Left button pans, Right button zooms\\nx/y fixes axis, CTRL fixes aspect\", \"fa fa-arrows\", \"pan\"], [\"Zoom\", \"Zoom to rectangle\\nx/y fixes axis\", \"fa fa-square-o\", \"zoom\"], [\"\", \"\", \"\", \"\"], [\"Download\", \"Download plot\", \"fa fa-floppy-o\", \"download\"]];\n", "\n", "mpl.extensions = [\"eps\", \"jpeg\", \"pgf\", \"pdf\", \"png\", \"ps\", \"raw\", \"svg\", \"tif\", \"webp\"];\n", "\n", "mpl.default_extension = \"png\";/* global mpl */\n", "\n", "var comm_websocket_adapter = function (comm) {\n", " // Create a \"websocket\"-like object which calls the given IPython comm\n", " // object with the appropriate methods. Currently this is a non binary\n", " // socket, so there is still some room for performance tuning.\n", " var ws = {};\n", "\n", " ws.binaryType = comm.kernel.ws.binaryType;\n", " ws.readyState = comm.kernel.ws.readyState;\n", " function updateReadyState(_event) {\n", " if (comm.kernel.ws) {\n", " ws.readyState = comm.kernel.ws.readyState;\n", " } else {\n", " ws.readyState = 3; // Closed state.\n", " }\n", " }\n", " comm.kernel.ws.addEventListener('open', updateReadyState);\n", " comm.kernel.ws.addEventListener('close', updateReadyState);\n", " comm.kernel.ws.addEventListener('error', updateReadyState);\n", "\n", " ws.close = function () {\n", " comm.close();\n", " };\n", " ws.send = function (m) {\n", " //console.log('sending', m);\n", " comm.send(m);\n", " };\n", " // Register the callback with on_msg.\n", " comm.on_msg(function (msg) {\n", " //console.log('receiving', msg['content']['data'], msg);\n", " var data = msg['content']['data'];\n", " if (data['blob'] !== undefined) {\n", " data = {\n", " data: new Blob(msg['buffers'], { type: data['blob'] }),\n", " };\n", " }\n", " // Pass the mpl event to the overridden (by mpl) onmessage function.\n", " ws.onmessage(data);\n", " });\n", " return ws;\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.mpl_figure_comm = function (comm, msg) {\n", " // This is the function which gets called when the mpl process\n", " // starts-up an IPython Comm through the \"matplotlib\" channel.\n", "\n", " var id = msg.content.data.id;\n", " // Get hold of the div created by the display call when the Comm\n", " // socket was opened in Python.\n", " var element = document.getElementById(id);\n", " var ws_proxy = comm_websocket_adapter(comm);\n", "\n", " function ondownload(figure, _format) {\n", " window.open(figure.canvas.toDataURL());\n", " }\n", "\n", " var fig = new mpl.figure(id, ws_proxy, ondownload, element);\n", "\n", " // Call onopen now - mpl needs it, as it is assuming we've passed it a real\n", " // web socket which is closed, not our websocket->open comm proxy.\n", " ws_proxy.onopen();\n", "\n", " fig.parent_element = element;\n", " fig.cell_info = mpl.find_output_cell(\"
\");\n", " if (!fig.cell_info) {\n", " console.error('Failed to find cell for figure', id, fig);\n", " return;\n", " }\n", " fig.cell_info[0].output_area.element.on(\n", " 'cleared',\n", " { fig: fig },\n", " fig._remove_fig_handler\n", " );\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_close = function (fig, msg) {\n", " var width = fig.canvas.width / fig.ratio;\n", " fig.cell_info[0].output_area.element.off(\n", " 'cleared',\n", " fig._remove_fig_handler\n", " );\n", " fig.resizeObserverInstance.unobserve(fig.canvas_div);\n", "\n", " // Update the output cell to use the data from the current canvas.\n", " fig.push_to_output();\n", " var dataURL = fig.canvas.toDataURL();\n", " // Re-enable the keyboard manager in IPython - without this line, in FF,\n", " // the notebook keyboard shortcuts fail.\n", " IPython.keyboard_manager.enable();\n", " fig.parent_element.innerHTML =\n", " '';\n", " fig.close_ws(fig, msg);\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.close_ws = function (fig, msg) {\n", " fig.send_message('closing', msg);\n", " // fig.ws.close()\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.push_to_output = function (_remove_interactive) {\n", " // Turn the data on the canvas into data in the output cell.\n", " var width = this.canvas.width / this.ratio;\n", " var dataURL = this.canvas.toDataURL();\n", " this.cell_info[1]['text/html'] =\n", " '';\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.updated_canvas_event = function () {\n", " // Tell IPython that the notebook contents must change.\n", " IPython.notebook.set_dirty(true);\n", " this.send_message('ack', {});\n", " var fig = this;\n", " // Wait a second, then push the new image to the DOM so\n", " // that it is saved nicely (might be nice to debounce this).\n", " setTimeout(function () {\n", " fig.push_to_output();\n", " }, 1000);\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._init_toolbar = function () {\n", " var fig = this;\n", "\n", " var toolbar = document.createElement('div');\n", " toolbar.classList = 'btn-toolbar';\n", " this.root.appendChild(toolbar);\n", "\n", " function on_click_closure(name) {\n", " return function (_event) {\n", " return fig.toolbar_button_onclick(name);\n", " };\n", " }\n", "\n", " function on_mouseover_closure(tooltip) {\n", " return function (event) {\n", " if (!event.currentTarget.disabled) {\n", " return fig.toolbar_button_onmouseover(tooltip);\n", " }\n", " };\n", " }\n", "\n", " fig.buttons = {};\n", " var buttonGroup = document.createElement('div');\n", " buttonGroup.classList = 'btn-group';\n", " var button;\n", " for (var toolbar_ind in mpl.toolbar_items) {\n", " var name = mpl.toolbar_items[toolbar_ind][0];\n", " var tooltip = mpl.toolbar_items[toolbar_ind][1];\n", " var image = mpl.toolbar_items[toolbar_ind][2];\n", " var method_name = mpl.toolbar_items[toolbar_ind][3];\n", "\n", " if (!name) {\n", " /* Instead of a spacer, we start a new button group. */\n", " if (buttonGroup.hasChildNodes()) {\n", " toolbar.appendChild(buttonGroup);\n", " }\n", " buttonGroup = document.createElement('div');\n", " buttonGroup.classList = 'btn-group';\n", " continue;\n", " }\n", "\n", " button = fig.buttons[name] = document.createElement('button');\n", " button.classList = 'btn btn-default';\n", " button.href = '#';\n", " button.title = name;\n", " button.innerHTML = '';\n", " button.addEventListener('click', on_click_closure(method_name));\n", " button.addEventListener('mouseover', on_mouseover_closure(tooltip));\n", " buttonGroup.appendChild(button);\n", " }\n", "\n", " if (buttonGroup.hasChildNodes()) {\n", " toolbar.appendChild(buttonGroup);\n", " }\n", "\n", " // Add the status bar.\n", " var status_bar = document.createElement('span');\n", " status_bar.classList = 'mpl-message pull-right';\n", " toolbar.appendChild(status_bar);\n", " this.message = status_bar;\n", "\n", " // Add the close button to the window.\n", " var buttongrp = document.createElement('div');\n", " buttongrp.classList = 'btn-group inline pull-right';\n", " button = document.createElement('button');\n", " button.classList = 'btn btn-mini btn-primary';\n", " button.href = '#';\n", " button.title = 'Stop Interaction';\n", " button.innerHTML = '';\n", " button.addEventListener('click', function (_evt) {\n", " fig.handle_close(fig, {});\n", " });\n", " button.addEventListener(\n", " 'mouseover',\n", " on_mouseover_closure('Stop Interaction')\n", " );\n", " buttongrp.appendChild(button);\n", " var titlebar = this.root.querySelector('.ui-dialog-titlebar');\n", " titlebar.insertBefore(buttongrp, titlebar.firstChild);\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._remove_fig_handler = function (event) {\n", " var fig = event.data.fig;\n", " if (event.target !== this) {\n", " // Ignore bubbled events from children.\n", " return;\n", " }\n", " fig.close_ws(fig, {});\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._root_extra_style = function (el) {\n", " el.style.boxSizing = 'content-box'; // override notebook setting of border-box.\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._canvas_extra_style = function (el) {\n", " // this is important to make the div 'focusable\n", " el.setAttribute('tabindex', 0);\n", " // reach out to IPython and tell the keyboard manager to turn it's self\n", " // off when our div gets focus\n", "\n", " // location in version 3\n", " if (IPython.notebook.keyboard_manager) {\n", " IPython.notebook.keyboard_manager.register_events(el);\n", " } else {\n", " // location in version 2\n", " IPython.keyboard_manager.register_events(el);\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._key_event_extra = function (event, _name) {\n", " // Check for shift+enter\n", " if (event.shiftKey && event.which === 13) {\n", " this.canvas_div.blur();\n", " // select the cell after this one\n", " var index = IPython.notebook.find_cell_index(this.cell_info[0]);\n", " IPython.notebook.select(index + 1);\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_save = function (fig, _msg) {\n", " fig.ondownload(fig, null);\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.find_output_cell = function (html_output) {\n", " // Return the cell and output element which can be found *uniquely* in the notebook.\n", " // Note - this is a bit hacky, but it is done because the \"notebook_saving.Notebook\"\n", " // IPython event is triggered only after the cells have been serialised, which for\n", " // our purposes (turning an active figure into a static one), is too late.\n", " var cells = IPython.notebook.get_cells();\n", " var ncells = cells.length;\n", " for (var i = 0; i < ncells; i++) {\n", " var cell = cells[i];\n", " if (cell.cell_type === 'code') {\n", " for (var j = 0; j < cell.output_area.outputs.length; j++) {\n", " var data = cell.output_area.outputs[j];\n", " if (data.data) {\n", " // IPython >= 3 moved mimebundle to data attribute of output\n", " data = data.data;\n", " }\n", " if (data['text/html'] === html_output) {\n", " return [cell, data, j];\n", " }\n", " }\n", " }\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "// Register the function which deals with the matplotlib target/channel.\n", "// The kernel may be null if the page has been refreshed.\n", "if (IPython.notebook.kernel !== null) {\n", " IPython.notebook.kernel.comm_manager.register_target(\n", " 'matplotlib',\n", " mpl.mpl_figure_comm\n", " );\n", "}\n" ], "text/plain": [ "" ] }, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "display_data" }, { "data": { "text/html": [ "" ], "text/plain": [ "" ] }, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "display_data" } ], "source": [ "base_point = gs.array([0., 0., 0.])\n", "initial_cotangent = gs.array([1., 1., 1.])\n", "\n", "times = gs.linspace(0., 10., 50)\n", "\n", "path_epsilon_1 = heis_epsilon_1.geodesic(initial_point=base_point,\n", " initial_cotangent_vec=initial_cotangent,\n", " n_steps=1000)\n", "\n", "path_epsilon_0 = heis_epsilon_0.geodesic(initial_point=base_point,\n", " initial_cotangent_vec=initial_cotangent,\n", " n_steps=1000)\n", "\n", "\n", "path_1 = path_epsilon_1(times)\n", "path_0 = path_epsilon_0(times)\n", "\n", "fig1 = plt.figure()\n", "ax = plt.axes(projection='3d')\n", "ax.scatter(0, 0, 0, marker='+', color='black')\n", "\n", "ax.plot3D(path_1[:, 0],\n", " path_1[:, 1],\n", " path_1[:, 2],\n", " '-',\n", " linewidth=1.5,\n", " markersize=0,\n", " marker='.',\n", " color='green',\n", " alpha=0.7,\n", " label='epsilon = 1')\n", "\n", "ax.plot3D(path_0[:, 0],\n", " path_0[:, 1],\n", " path_0[:, 2],\n", " '-',\n", " linewidth=1.5,\n", " markersize=0,\n", " marker='.',\n", " color='red',\n", " alpha=0.7,\n", " label='epsilon = 0')\n", "\n", "ax.legend()\n", "\n", "plt.show()\n" ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": {}, "source": [ "We see that the spiralling structure is similar for the Riemannian ($\\epsilon=1$) and the sub-Riemannian ($\\epsilon=0$) geodesics, in fact only their z-coordinates differ. Let's check that the sub-Riemannian geodesic is horizontal wrt. to the distribution $\\Delta_p = \\text{span}(F_X(p), F_Y(p))$ (i.e. it's tangent vectors lies in $\\Delta$), whereas the Riemannian one isn't." ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 11, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "application/javascript": [ "/* Put everything inside the global mpl namespace */\n", "/* global mpl */\n", "window.mpl = {};\n", "\n", "mpl.get_websocket_type = function () {\n", " if (typeof WebSocket !== 'undefined') {\n", " return WebSocket;\n", " } else if (typeof MozWebSocket !== 'undefined') {\n", " return MozWebSocket;\n", " } else {\n", " alert(\n", " 'Your browser does not have WebSocket support. ' +\n", " 'Please try Chrome, Safari or Firefox ≥ 6. ' +\n", " 'Firefox 4 and 5 are also supported but you ' +\n", " 'have to enable WebSockets in about:config.'\n", " );\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure = function (figure_id, websocket, ondownload, parent_element) {\n", " this.id = figure_id;\n", "\n", " this.ws = websocket;\n", "\n", " this.supports_binary = this.ws.binaryType !== undefined;\n", "\n", " if (!this.supports_binary) {\n", " var warnings = document.getElementById('mpl-warnings');\n", " if (warnings) {\n", " warnings.style.display = 'block';\n", " warnings.textContent =\n", " 'This browser does not support binary websocket messages. ' +\n", " 'Performance may be slow.';\n", " }\n", " }\n", "\n", " this.imageObj = new Image();\n", "\n", " this.context = undefined;\n", " this.message = undefined;\n", " this.canvas = undefined;\n", " this.rubberband_canvas = undefined;\n", " this.rubberband_context = undefined;\n", " this.format_dropdown = undefined;\n", "\n", " this.image_mode = 'full';\n", "\n", " this.root = document.createElement('div');\n", " this.root.setAttribute('style', 'display: inline-block');\n", " this._root_extra_style(this.root);\n", "\n", " parent_element.appendChild(this.root);\n", "\n", " this._init_header(this);\n", " this._init_canvas(this);\n", " this._init_toolbar(this);\n", "\n", " var fig = this;\n", "\n", " this.waiting = false;\n", "\n", " this.ws.onopen = function () {\n", " fig.send_message('supports_binary', { value: fig.supports_binary });\n", " fig.send_message('send_image_mode', {});\n", " if (fig.ratio !== 1) {\n", " fig.send_message('set_device_pixel_ratio', {\n", " device_pixel_ratio: fig.ratio,\n", " });\n", " }\n", " fig.send_message('refresh', {});\n", " };\n", "\n", " this.imageObj.onload = function () {\n", " if (fig.image_mode === 'full') {\n", " // Full images could contain transparency (where diff images\n", " // almost always do), so we need to clear the canvas so that\n", " // there is no ghosting.\n", " fig.context.clearRect(0, 0, fig.canvas.width, fig.canvas.height);\n", " }\n", " fig.context.drawImage(fig.imageObj, 0, 0);\n", " };\n", "\n", " this.imageObj.onunload = function () {\n", " fig.ws.close();\n", " };\n", "\n", " this.ws.onmessage = this._make_on_message_function(this);\n", "\n", " this.ondownload = ondownload;\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._init_header = function () {\n", " var titlebar = document.createElement('div');\n", " titlebar.classList =\n", " 'ui-dialog-titlebar ui-widget-header ui-corner-all ui-helper-clearfix';\n", " var titletext = document.createElement('div');\n", " titletext.classList = 'ui-dialog-title';\n", " titletext.setAttribute(\n", " 'style',\n", " 'width: 100%; text-align: center; padding: 3px;'\n", " );\n", " titlebar.appendChild(titletext);\n", " this.root.appendChild(titlebar);\n", " this.header = titletext;\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._canvas_extra_style = function (_canvas_div) {};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._root_extra_style = function (_canvas_div) {};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._init_canvas = function () {\n", " var fig = this;\n", "\n", " var canvas_div = (this.canvas_div = document.createElement('div'));\n", " canvas_div.setAttribute('tabindex', '0');\n", " canvas_div.setAttribute(\n", " 'style',\n", " 'border: 1px solid #ddd;' +\n", " 'box-sizing: content-box;' +\n", " 'clear: both;' +\n", " 'min-height: 1px;' +\n", " 'min-width: 1px;' +\n", " 'outline: 0;' +\n", " 'overflow: hidden;' +\n", " 'position: relative;' +\n", " 'resize: both;' +\n", " 'z-index: 2;'\n", " );\n", "\n", " function on_keyboard_event_closure(name) {\n", " return function (event) {\n", " return fig.key_event(event, name);\n", " };\n", " }\n", "\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener(\n", " 'keydown',\n", " on_keyboard_event_closure('key_press')\n", " );\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener(\n", " 'keyup',\n", " on_keyboard_event_closure('key_release')\n", " );\n", "\n", " this._canvas_extra_style(canvas_div);\n", " this.root.appendChild(canvas_div);\n", "\n", " var canvas = (this.canvas = document.createElement('canvas'));\n", " canvas.classList.add('mpl-canvas');\n", " canvas.setAttribute(\n", " 'style',\n", " 'box-sizing: content-box;' +\n", " 'pointer-events: none;' +\n", " 'position: relative;' +\n", " 'z-index: 0;'\n", " );\n", "\n", " this.context = canvas.getContext('2d');\n", "\n", " var backingStore =\n", " this.context.backingStorePixelRatio ||\n", " this.context.webkitBackingStorePixelRatio ||\n", " this.context.mozBackingStorePixelRatio ||\n", " this.context.msBackingStorePixelRatio ||\n", " this.context.oBackingStorePixelRatio ||\n", " this.context.backingStorePixelRatio ||\n", " 1;\n", "\n", " this.ratio = (window.devicePixelRatio || 1) / backingStore;\n", "\n", " var rubberband_canvas = (this.rubberband_canvas = document.createElement(\n", " 'canvas'\n", " ));\n", " rubberband_canvas.setAttribute(\n", " 'style',\n", " 'box-sizing: content-box;' +\n", " 'left: 0;' +\n", " 'pointer-events: none;' +\n", " 'position: absolute;' +\n", " 'top: 0;' +\n", " 'z-index: 1;'\n", " );\n", "\n", " // Apply a ponyfill if ResizeObserver is not implemented by browser.\n", " if (this.ResizeObserver === undefined) {\n", " if (window.ResizeObserver !== undefined) {\n", " this.ResizeObserver = window.ResizeObserver;\n", " } else {\n", " var obs = _JSXTOOLS_RESIZE_OBSERVER({});\n", " this.ResizeObserver = obs.ResizeObserver;\n", " }\n", " }\n", "\n", " this.resizeObserverInstance = new this.ResizeObserver(function (entries) {\n", " var nentries = entries.length;\n", " for (var i = 0; i < nentries; i++) {\n", " var entry = entries[i];\n", " var width, height;\n", " if (entry.contentBoxSize) {\n", " if (entry.contentBoxSize instanceof Array) {\n", " // Chrome 84 implements new version of spec.\n", " width = entry.contentBoxSize[0].inlineSize;\n", " height = entry.contentBoxSize[0].blockSize;\n", " } else {\n", " // Firefox implements old version of spec.\n", " width = entry.contentBoxSize.inlineSize;\n", " height = entry.contentBoxSize.blockSize;\n", " }\n", " } else {\n", " // Chrome <84 implements even older version of spec.\n", " width = entry.contentRect.width;\n", " height = entry.contentRect.height;\n", " }\n", "\n", " // Keep the size of the canvas and rubber band canvas in sync with\n", " // the canvas container.\n", " if (entry.devicePixelContentBoxSize) {\n", " // Chrome 84 implements new version of spec.\n", " canvas.setAttribute(\n", " 'width',\n", " entry.devicePixelContentBoxSize[0].inlineSize\n", " );\n", " canvas.setAttribute(\n", " 'height',\n", " entry.devicePixelContentBoxSize[0].blockSize\n", " );\n", " } else {\n", " canvas.setAttribute('width', width * fig.ratio);\n", " canvas.setAttribute('height', height * fig.ratio);\n", " }\n", " /* This rescales the canvas back to display pixels, so that it\n", " * appears correct on HiDPI screens. */\n", " canvas.style.width = width + 'px';\n", " canvas.style.height = height + 'px';\n", "\n", " rubberband_canvas.setAttribute('width', width);\n", " rubberband_canvas.setAttribute('height', height);\n", "\n", " // And update the size in Python. We ignore the initial 0/0 size\n", " // that occurs as the element is placed into the DOM, which should\n", " // otherwise not happen due to the minimum size styling.\n", " if (fig.ws.readyState == 1 && width != 0 && height != 0) {\n", " fig.request_resize(width, height);\n", " }\n", " }\n", " });\n", " this.resizeObserverInstance.observe(canvas_div);\n", "\n", " function on_mouse_event_closure(name) {\n", " /* User Agent sniffing is bad, but WebKit is busted:\n", " * https://bugs.webkit.org/show_bug.cgi?id=144526\n", " * https://bugs.webkit.org/show_bug.cgi?id=181818\n", " * The worst that happens here is that they get an extra browser\n", " * selection when dragging, if this check fails to catch them.\n", " */\n", " var UA = navigator.userAgent;\n", " var isWebKit = /AppleWebKit/.test(UA) && !/Chrome/.test(UA);\n", " if(isWebKit) {\n", " return function (event) {\n", " /* This prevents the web browser from automatically changing to\n", " * the text insertion cursor when the button is pressed. We\n", " * want to control all of the cursor setting manually through\n", " * the 'cursor' event from matplotlib */\n", " event.preventDefault()\n", " return fig.mouse_event(event, name);\n", " };\n", " } else {\n", " return function (event) {\n", " return fig.mouse_event(event, name);\n", " };\n", " }\n", " }\n", "\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener(\n", " 'mousedown',\n", " on_mouse_event_closure('button_press')\n", " );\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener(\n", " 'mouseup',\n", " on_mouse_event_closure('button_release')\n", " );\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener(\n", " 'dblclick',\n", " on_mouse_event_closure('dblclick')\n", " );\n", " // Throttle sequential mouse events to 1 every 20ms.\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener(\n", " 'mousemove',\n", " on_mouse_event_closure('motion_notify')\n", " );\n", "\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener(\n", " 'mouseenter',\n", " on_mouse_event_closure('figure_enter')\n", " );\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener(\n", " 'mouseleave',\n", " on_mouse_event_closure('figure_leave')\n", " );\n", "\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener('wheel', function (event) {\n", " if (event.deltaY < 0) {\n", " event.step = 1;\n", " } else {\n", " event.step = -1;\n", " }\n", " on_mouse_event_closure('scroll')(event);\n", " });\n", "\n", " canvas_div.appendChild(canvas);\n", " canvas_div.appendChild(rubberband_canvas);\n", "\n", " this.rubberband_context = rubberband_canvas.getContext('2d');\n", " this.rubberband_context.strokeStyle = '#000000';\n", "\n", " this._resize_canvas = function (width, height, forward) {\n", " if (forward) {\n", " canvas_div.style.width = width + 'px';\n", " canvas_div.style.height = height + 'px';\n", " }\n", " };\n", "\n", " // Disable right mouse context menu.\n", " canvas_div.addEventListener('contextmenu', function (_e) {\n", " event.preventDefault();\n", " return false;\n", " });\n", "\n", " function set_focus() {\n", " canvas.focus();\n", " canvas_div.focus();\n", " }\n", "\n", " window.setTimeout(set_focus, 100);\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._init_toolbar = function () {\n", " var fig = this;\n", "\n", " var toolbar = document.createElement('div');\n", " toolbar.classList = 'mpl-toolbar';\n", " this.root.appendChild(toolbar);\n", "\n", " function on_click_closure(name) {\n", " return function (_event) {\n", " return fig.toolbar_button_onclick(name);\n", " };\n", " }\n", "\n", " function on_mouseover_closure(tooltip) {\n", " return function (event) {\n", " if (!event.currentTarget.disabled) {\n", " return fig.toolbar_button_onmouseover(tooltip);\n", " }\n", " };\n", " }\n", "\n", " fig.buttons = {};\n", " var buttonGroup = document.createElement('div');\n", " buttonGroup.classList = 'mpl-button-group';\n", " for (var toolbar_ind in mpl.toolbar_items) {\n", " var name = mpl.toolbar_items[toolbar_ind][0];\n", " var tooltip = mpl.toolbar_items[toolbar_ind][1];\n", " var image = mpl.toolbar_items[toolbar_ind][2];\n", " var method_name = mpl.toolbar_items[toolbar_ind][3];\n", "\n", " if (!name) {\n", " /* Instead of a spacer, we start a new button group. */\n", " if (buttonGroup.hasChildNodes()) {\n", " toolbar.appendChild(buttonGroup);\n", " }\n", " buttonGroup = document.createElement('div');\n", " buttonGroup.classList = 'mpl-button-group';\n", " continue;\n", " }\n", "\n", " var button = (fig.buttons[name] = document.createElement('button'));\n", " button.classList = 'mpl-widget';\n", " button.setAttribute('role', 'button');\n", " button.setAttribute('aria-disabled', 'false');\n", " button.addEventListener('click', on_click_closure(method_name));\n", " button.addEventListener('mouseover', on_mouseover_closure(tooltip));\n", "\n", " var icon_img = document.createElement('img');\n", " icon_img.src = '_images/' + image + '.png';\n", " icon_img.srcset = '_images/' + image + '_large.png 2x';\n", " icon_img.alt = tooltip;\n", " button.appendChild(icon_img);\n", "\n", " buttonGroup.appendChild(button);\n", " }\n", "\n", " if (buttonGroup.hasChildNodes()) {\n", " toolbar.appendChild(buttonGroup);\n", " }\n", "\n", " var fmt_picker = document.createElement('select');\n", " fmt_picker.classList = 'mpl-widget';\n", " toolbar.appendChild(fmt_picker);\n", " this.format_dropdown = fmt_picker;\n", "\n", " for (var ind in mpl.extensions) {\n", " var fmt = mpl.extensions[ind];\n", " var option = document.createElement('option');\n", " option.selected = fmt === mpl.default_extension;\n", " option.innerHTML = fmt;\n", " fmt_picker.appendChild(option);\n", " }\n", "\n", " var status_bar = document.createElement('span');\n", " status_bar.classList = 'mpl-message';\n", " toolbar.appendChild(status_bar);\n", " this.message = status_bar;\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.request_resize = function (x_pixels, y_pixels) {\n", " // Request matplotlib to resize the figure. Matplotlib will then trigger a resize in the client,\n", " // which will in turn request a refresh of the image.\n", " this.send_message('resize', { width: x_pixels, height: y_pixels });\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.send_message = function (type, properties) {\n", " properties['type'] = type;\n", " properties['figure_id'] = this.id;\n", " this.ws.send(JSON.stringify(properties));\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.send_draw_message = function () {\n", " if (!this.waiting) {\n", " this.waiting = true;\n", " this.ws.send(JSON.stringify({ type: 'draw', figure_id: this.id }));\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_save = function (fig, _msg) {\n", " var format_dropdown = fig.format_dropdown;\n", " var format = format_dropdown.options[format_dropdown.selectedIndex].value;\n", " fig.ondownload(fig, format);\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_resize = function (fig, msg) {\n", " var size = msg['size'];\n", " if (size[0] !== fig.canvas.width || size[1] !== fig.canvas.height) {\n", " fig._resize_canvas(size[0], size[1], msg['forward']);\n", " fig.send_message('refresh', {});\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_rubberband = function (fig, msg) {\n", " var x0 = msg['x0'] / fig.ratio;\n", " var y0 = (fig.canvas.height - msg['y0']) / fig.ratio;\n", " var x1 = msg['x1'] / fig.ratio;\n", " var y1 = (fig.canvas.height - msg['y1']) / fig.ratio;\n", " x0 = Math.floor(x0) + 0.5;\n", " y0 = Math.floor(y0) + 0.5;\n", " x1 = Math.floor(x1) + 0.5;\n", " y1 = Math.floor(y1) + 0.5;\n", " var min_x = Math.min(x0, x1);\n", " var min_y = Math.min(y0, y1);\n", " var width = Math.abs(x1 - x0);\n", " var height = Math.abs(y1 - y0);\n", "\n", " fig.rubberband_context.clearRect(\n", " 0,\n", " 0,\n", " fig.canvas.width / fig.ratio,\n", " fig.canvas.height / fig.ratio\n", " );\n", "\n", " fig.rubberband_context.strokeRect(min_x, min_y, width, height);\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_figure_label = function (fig, msg) {\n", " // Updates the figure title.\n", " fig.header.textContent = msg['label'];\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_cursor = function (fig, msg) {\n", " fig.canvas_div.style.cursor = msg['cursor'];\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_message = function (fig, msg) {\n", " fig.message.textContent = msg['message'];\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_draw = function (fig, _msg) {\n", " // Request the server to send over a new figure.\n", " fig.send_draw_message();\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_image_mode = function (fig, msg) {\n", " fig.image_mode = msg['mode'];\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_history_buttons = function (fig, msg) {\n", " for (var key in msg) {\n", " if (!(key in fig.buttons)) {\n", " continue;\n", " }\n", " fig.buttons[key].disabled = !msg[key];\n", " fig.buttons[key].setAttribute('aria-disabled', !msg[key]);\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.handle_navigate_mode = function (fig, msg) {\n", " if (msg['mode'] === 'PAN') {\n", " fig.buttons['Pan'].classList.add('active');\n", " fig.buttons['Zoom'].classList.remove('active');\n", " } else if (msg['mode'] === 'ZOOM') {\n", " fig.buttons['Pan'].classList.remove('active');\n", " fig.buttons['Zoom'].classList.add('active');\n", " } else {\n", " fig.buttons['Pan'].classList.remove('active');\n", " fig.buttons['Zoom'].classList.remove('active');\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.updated_canvas_event = function () {\n", " // Called whenever the canvas gets updated.\n", " this.send_message('ack', {});\n", "};\n", "\n", "// A function to construct a web socket function for onmessage handling.\n", "// Called in the figure constructor.\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._make_on_message_function = function (fig) {\n", " return function socket_on_message(evt) {\n", " if (evt.data instanceof Blob) {\n", " var img = evt.data;\n", " if (img.type !== 'image/png') {\n", " /* FIXME: We get \"Resource interpreted as Image but\n", " * transferred with MIME type text/plain:\" errors on\n", " * Chrome. But how to set the MIME type? It doesn't seem\n", " * to be part of the websocket stream */\n", " img.type = 'image/png';\n", " }\n", "\n", " /* Free the memory for the previous frames */\n", " if (fig.imageObj.src) {\n", " (window.URL || window.webkitURL).revokeObjectURL(\n", " fig.imageObj.src\n", " );\n", " }\n", "\n", " fig.imageObj.src = (window.URL || window.webkitURL).createObjectURL(\n", " img\n", " );\n", " fig.updated_canvas_event();\n", " fig.waiting = false;\n", " return;\n", " } else if (\n", " typeof evt.data === 'string' &&\n", " evt.data.slice(0, 21) === 'data:image/png;base64'\n", " ) {\n", " fig.imageObj.src = evt.data;\n", " fig.updated_canvas_event();\n", " fig.waiting = false;\n", " return;\n", " }\n", "\n", " var msg = JSON.parse(evt.data);\n", " var msg_type = msg['type'];\n", "\n", " // Call the \"handle_{type}\" callback, which takes\n", " // the figure and JSON message as its only arguments.\n", " try {\n", " var callback = fig['handle_' + msg_type];\n", " } catch (e) {\n", " console.log(\n", " \"No handler for the '\" + msg_type + \"' message type: \",\n", " msg\n", " );\n", " return;\n", " }\n", "\n", " if (callback) {\n", " try {\n", " // console.log(\"Handling '\" + msg_type + \"' message: \", msg);\n", " callback(fig, msg);\n", " } catch (e) {\n", " console.log(\n", " \"Exception inside the 'handler_\" + msg_type + \"' callback:\",\n", " e,\n", " e.stack,\n", " msg\n", " );\n", " }\n", " }\n", " };\n", "};\n", "\n", "function getModifiers(event) {\n", " var mods = [];\n", " if (event.ctrlKey) {\n", " mods.push('ctrl');\n", " }\n", " if (event.altKey) {\n", " mods.push('alt');\n", " }\n", " if (event.shiftKey) {\n", " mods.push('shift');\n", " }\n", " if (event.metaKey) {\n", " mods.push('meta');\n", " }\n", " return mods;\n", "}\n", "\n", "/*\n", " * return a copy of an object with only non-object keys\n", " * we need this to avoid circular references\n", " * https://stackoverflow.com/a/24161582/3208463\n", " */\n", "function simpleKeys(original) {\n", " return Object.keys(original).reduce(function (obj, key) {\n", " if (typeof original[key] !== 'object') {\n", " obj[key] = original[key];\n", " }\n", " return obj;\n", " }, {});\n", "}\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.mouse_event = function (event, name) {\n", " if (name === 'button_press') {\n", " this.canvas.focus();\n", " this.canvas_div.focus();\n", " }\n", "\n", " // from https://stackoverflow.com/q/1114465\n", " var boundingRect = this.canvas.getBoundingClientRect();\n", " var x = (event.clientX - boundingRect.left) * this.ratio;\n", " var y = (event.clientY - boundingRect.top) * this.ratio;\n", "\n", " this.send_message(name, {\n", " x: x,\n", " y: y,\n", " button: event.button,\n", " step: event.step,\n", " modifiers: getModifiers(event),\n", " guiEvent: simpleKeys(event),\n", " });\n", "\n", " return false;\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype._key_event_extra = function (_event, _name) {\n", " // Handle any extra behaviour associated with a key event\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.key_event = function (event, name) {\n", " // Prevent repeat events\n", " if (name === 'key_press') {\n", " if (event.key === this._key) {\n", " return;\n", " } else {\n", " this._key = event.key;\n", " }\n", " }\n", " if (name === 'key_release') {\n", " this._key = null;\n", " }\n", "\n", " var value = '';\n", " if (event.ctrlKey && event.key !== 'Control') {\n", " value += 'ctrl+';\n", " }\n", " else if (event.altKey && event.key !== 'Alt') {\n", " value += 'alt+';\n", " }\n", " else if (event.shiftKey && event.key !== 'Shift') {\n", " value += 'shift+';\n", " }\n", "\n", " value += 'k' + event.key;\n", "\n", " this._key_event_extra(event, name);\n", "\n", " this.send_message(name, { key: value, guiEvent: simpleKeys(event) });\n", " return false;\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.toolbar_button_onclick = function (name) {\n", " if (name === 'download') {\n", " this.handle_save(this, null);\n", " } else {\n", " this.send_message('toolbar_button', { name: name });\n", " }\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.figure.prototype.toolbar_button_onmouseover = function (tooltip) {\n", " this.message.textContent = tooltip;\n", "};\n", "\n", "///////////////// REMAINING CONTENT GENERATED BY embed_js.py /////////////////\n", "// prettier-ignore\n", "var _JSXTOOLS_RESIZE_OBSERVER=function(A){var t,i=new WeakMap,n=new WeakMap,a=new WeakMap,r=new WeakMap,o=new Set;function s(e){if(!(this instanceof s))throw new TypeError(\"Constructor requires 'new' operator\");i.set(this,e)}function h(){throw new TypeError(\"Function is not a constructor\")}function c(e,t,i,n){e=0 in arguments?Number(arguments[0]):0,t=1 in arguments?Number(arguments[1]):0,i=2 in arguments?Number(arguments[2]):0,n=3 in arguments?Number(arguments[3]):0,this.right=(this.x=this.left=e)+(this.width=i),this.bottom=(this.y=this.top=t)+(this.height=n),Object.freeze(this)}function d(){t=requestAnimationFrame(d);var s=new WeakMap,p=new Set;o.forEach((function(t){r.get(t).forEach((function(i){var r=t instanceof window.SVGElement,o=a.get(t),d=r?0:parseFloat(o.paddingTop),f=r?0:parseFloat(o.paddingRight),l=r?0:parseFloat(o.paddingBottom),u=r?0:parseFloat(o.paddingLeft),g=r?0:parseFloat(o.borderTopWidth),m=r?0:parseFloat(o.borderRightWidth),w=r?0:parseFloat(o.borderBottomWidth),b=u+f,F=d+l,v=(r?0:parseFloat(o.borderLeftWidth))+m,W=g+w,y=r?0:t.offsetHeight-W-t.clientHeight,E=r?0:t.offsetWidth-v-t.clientWidth,R=b+v,z=F+W,M=r?t.width:parseFloat(o.width)-R-E,O=r?t.height:parseFloat(o.height)-z-y;if(n.has(t)){var k=n.get(t);if(k[0]===M&&k[1]===O)return}n.set(t,[M,O]);var S=Object.create(h.prototype);S.target=t,S.contentRect=new c(u,d,M,O),s.has(i)||(s.set(i,[]),p.add(i)),s.get(i).push(S)}))})),p.forEach((function(e){i.get(e).call(e,s.get(e),e)}))}return s.prototype.observe=function(i){if(i instanceof window.Element){r.has(i)||(r.set(i,new Set),o.add(i),a.set(i,window.getComputedStyle(i)));var n=r.get(i);n.has(this)||n.add(this),cancelAnimationFrame(t),t=requestAnimationFrame(d)}},s.prototype.unobserve=function(i){if(i instanceof window.Element&&r.has(i)){var n=r.get(i);n.has(this)&&(n.delete(this),n.size||(r.delete(i),o.delete(i))),n.size||r.delete(i),o.size||cancelAnimationFrame(t)}},A.DOMRectReadOnly=c,A.ResizeObserver=s,A.ResizeObserverEntry=h,A}; // eslint-disable-line\n", "mpl.toolbar_items = [[\"Home\", \"Reset original view\", \"fa fa-home\", \"home\"], [\"Back\", \"Back to previous view\", \"fa fa-arrow-left\", \"back\"], [\"Forward\", \"Forward to next view\", \"fa fa-arrow-right\", \"forward\"], [\"\", \"\", \"\", \"\"], [\"Pan\", \"Left button pans, Right button zooms\\nx/y fixes axis, CTRL fixes aspect\", \"fa fa-arrows\", \"pan\"], [\"Zoom\", \"Zoom to rectangle\\nx/y fixes axis\", \"fa fa-square-o\", \"zoom\"], [\"\", \"\", \"\", \"\"], [\"Download\", \"Download plot\", \"fa fa-floppy-o\", \"download\"]];\n", "\n", "mpl.extensions = [\"eps\", \"jpeg\", \"pgf\", \"pdf\", \"png\", \"ps\", \"raw\", \"svg\", \"tif\", \"webp\"];\n", "\n", "mpl.default_extension = \"png\";/* global mpl */\n", "\n", "var comm_websocket_adapter = function (comm) {\n", " // Create a \"websocket\"-like object which calls the given IPython comm\n", " // object with the appropriate methods. Currently this is a non binary\n", " // socket, so there is still some room for performance tuning.\n", " var ws = {};\n", "\n", " ws.binaryType = comm.kernel.ws.binaryType;\n", " ws.readyState = comm.kernel.ws.readyState;\n", " function updateReadyState(_event) {\n", " if (comm.kernel.ws) {\n", " ws.readyState = comm.kernel.ws.readyState;\n", " } else {\n", " ws.readyState = 3; // Closed state.\n", " }\n", " }\n", " comm.kernel.ws.addEventListener('open', updateReadyState);\n", " comm.kernel.ws.addEventListener('close', updateReadyState);\n", " comm.kernel.ws.addEventListener('error', updateReadyState);\n", "\n", " ws.close = function () {\n", " comm.close();\n", " };\n", " ws.send = function (m) {\n", " //console.log('sending', m);\n", " comm.send(m);\n", " };\n", " // Register the callback with on_msg.\n", " comm.on_msg(function (msg) {\n", " //console.log('receiving', msg['content']['data'], msg);\n", " var data = msg['content']['data'];\n", " if (data['blob'] !== undefined) {\n", " data = {\n", " data: new Blob(msg['buffers'], { type: data['blob'] }),\n", " };\n", " }\n", " // Pass the mpl event to the overridden (by mpl) onmessage function.\n", " ws.onmessage(data);\n", " });\n", " return ws;\n", "};\n", "\n", "mpl.mpl_figure_comm = function (comm, msg) {\n", " // This is the function which gets called when the mpl process\n", " // starts-up an IPython Comm through the \"matplotlib\" channel.\n", "\n", " var id = msg.content.data.id;\n", " // Get hold of the div created by the display call when the Comm\n", " // socket was opened in Python.\n", " var element = document.getElementById(id);\n", " var ws_proxy = comm_websocket_adapter(comm);\n", "\n", " function ondownload(figure, _format) {\n", " window.open(figure.canvas.toDataURL());\n", " }\n", "\n", " var fig = new mpl.figure(id, ws_proxy, ondownload, element);\n", "\n", " // Call onopen now - mpl needs it, as it is assuming we've passed it a real\n", " // web socket which is closed, not our websocket->open comm proxy.\n", " ws_proxy.onopen();\n", "\n", " fig.parent_element = element;\n", " fig.cell_info = mpl.find_output_cell(\"